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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (34):

General Statements about Dieting in America

$50 billion a year is spent on dieting.
50% of 9- to 10-year old girls claim they would feel better if they lost some weight.


Downfalls of dieting

-Restrictive dieters will initially lose weight.
-Losing weight makes dieters feel better—in control.
-Dieters eventually reach a weight plateau.
-Dieters then feel robbed and become malnourished, which causes mood swings and desire to binge.
-The diet fails and weight is regained. The dieter feels like even more of a failure.
-Metabolic rate slows down and weight increases more.
Eating disorders and poorer health result.


Warning Signs of Anorexia Nervosa

-Dramatic weight loss
-Preoccupation with weight and food
-Refusal to eat certain foods
-Anxiety about being fat and attending mealtimes


Risk Factors of Anorexia Nervosa

-Mean age of onset is 17
-Perfectionist behavior
-Low self-esteem
-Preoccupation with becoming thin
-Dieting practices such as skipping meals
-Too much concern for body weight and appearance
-Participation in sports that emphasize thinness, such as figure skating or gymnastics


Warning Signs of Bolemia

-Eating (or the disappearance) of large amounts of food
-Purging behaviors (making frequent trips to the bathroom after meals)
-Excessively rigid exercise regimens


Risk Factors of Bolemia

-Unsuccessful dieters
-Strong need for social approval
-Conflict avoidance
-Inability to identify and assert personal needs
-Inadequate coping skills
-High distress levels
-Parental overprotectiveness


Characteristics of Binge Eating

Frequent episodes of uncontrolled overeating.


Characteristics of Anorexia Athletica

A misguided attempt to gain a sense of power, control, and self-respect through compulsive exercise


Dangers of Anorexia Athletica

-Exercising beyond requirements for good health
-Having a fanatical obsession about weight and diet
-Missing work and school and withdrawing from relationships to exercise
-Rarely satisfied with athletic achievement


Muscle Dysmorphia

Definition: as a preoccupation with the idea that one’s body is insufficiently lean or muscular

Warning Signs:
-Constant need for affirmation over physical attributes
-Compulsive weightlifting or bodybuilding routines
-May take steroids or other muscle-building drugs to get bigger


Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance that causes clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning

Warning Signs:
-Frequent comparison with others
-Repeated checking of specific body parts in mirror
-Wearing excessive clothing to camouflage perceived flaw


Society's Influence on Eating Disorders

-North American cultural overemphasis on thinness
-Glorification of youth
-Changing roles of women and men in society
-A fitness-crazed culture
-Presence of the media
-People who look more at TV and fashion magazines are more inclined to have an eating disorder.


Family Influence on Eating Disorders

-Higher risk in families where someone suffers from an eating disorder
-Praising thinness
-Being overly protective or overly critical and intimidating
-Mothers modeling weight concerns
-Mothers with an eating disorder often feed children irregularly, use food as a reward and punishment, and express concern about their daughter’s weight


General Statements about obesity and eating patterns

-An estimated 120 million Americans are overweight and 30 million are obese.
-Research indicates that individuals, age 30-49 that are 30 or more pounds over normal body weight lose about 7 years of life.
-Obesity costs Americans over $75 billion/year.
-Over 300,000 deaths/year are attributed to obesity.
-16% of children ages 6-19 are overweight


Definition of Obesity

Obesity is defined as excess weight characterized by a BMI equal to or greater than 30.


Definition of Overweight

Overweight is defined as excess weight characterized by a BMI greater than 25 but less than 30.


Definition of Creeping Obesity

Gradual increasing in weight


Measuring body fat

Hydrostatic weighing
Skinfold measurements
Electrical impedance devices


Health Consequences of Excess Weight

Increased Blood Pressure
Increased Blood Lipids
Type II Diabetes
Insulin Resistance, Glucose Intolerance
Coronary Heart Disease
Angina Pectoris
Congestive Heart Failure
Gallbladder Disease
Apnea and Respiratory Problems
Endometrial, Breast, Prostate, and Colon Cancers
Complications of Pregnancy
Poor Female Reproduc-tive Health (infertility)
Stress Incontinence
Psychological Disorders
Decreased Life Expectancy
Decreased Quality of Life


Energy and Weight Loss

The most effective way to tilt the energy balance equation in your favor is by spending energy through physical activity. Most people report a balanced energy intake with equal exercise. In reality there's a lot more energy intake and they fail to exercise enough.


Characteristics of a FAD Diet

-Nutritionally unbalanced.
-Based on testimonials and developed. according to “confidential research.”
-Promote rapid & “painless” weight loss.
-Promise miraculous results.
-Restrict food selection.
-Require use of selected foods.
-Use liquid formulas instead of foods.
-Misrepresent salespeople as individuals qualified to provide nutrition counseling.
-Fail to provide information on risks associated with weight loss and use of the diet.
-Do not involve physical activity.
-Do not encourage healthy behavioral changes.
-Are not supported by the scientific community or national health organizations.
-Fail to provide information for weight maintenance upon completion of diet phase.


Set Point Theory

-The Weight Regulating Mechanism (WRM) is a feature of the hypothalamus of the brain that controls how much the body should weigh.
-The WRM has a setpoint for controlling both appetite and the amount of fat stored.
-A very low-calorie diet will trigger the body to adjust its setpoint to a reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR – lowest level of caloric intake to sustain life) .


Body's fat thermostat

Increases with:
-Very low-calorie diets
-Excessive consumption of high fat high sugar foods

Decreases with:
-Moderately intense exercise
-Diet High in complex carbs and fiber


What's the relationship between dieting and exercise?

-The most effective way to tilt the energy balance equation in your favor is by spending energy through physical activity.
-Research shows that a combination of diet and exercise is the most effective way to lose weight.
-Adherence to an exercise program appears to be the best predictor of long-term weight loss maintenance.
-Body composition changes with lots of dieting and no exercise


What is calcium's effect on calorie expenditure?

-Calcium regulates fat storage inside the cell.
-Calcium helps the body break down fat or causes fat cells to produce less fat.
-High calcium intake converts more calories into heat rather than fat.
-Adequate calcium intake contributes to a decrease in intra-abdominal (visceral) fat.


What are weight loss strategies?

Make a commitment to change
Set realistic goals
Exercise regularly
Exercise control over your appetite
Consume less fat in the diet
Eliminate unnecessary food items from the diet
Include calcium-rich foods in the diet
Use craving-reducing foods in the diet
Avoid automatic eating
Stay busy
Plan meals ahead of time and shop sensibly
Pay attention to the number of calories in food
Cook wisely
Do not serve more food than you should eat
Use portion control in the diet and when dining out
Do not eat out more than once per week; when you do, eat low-fat meals
Eat slowly and at the table only
Avoid social binges
Avoid temptation by relocating or removing unhealthy foods
Avoid evening food raids
Practice stress management
Have a strong support group
Monitor changes and reward accomplishments
Prepare for lapses/relapses
Think positive


Choose My Plate Tips

Balance Calories
Enjoy food, but eat less of it
Avoid oversized portions
Eat more of these…
Make ½ your plate fruits & veggies
Fat-free or low-fat milk
Make ½ your grains whole grains
Eat less of these…
Compare sodiums
Drink water


How Many Calories Are there Per Gram of Food

Carbohydrate: 4
Protein: 4
Fat: 9
Alcohol: 7


What are the primary roles of protein?

Builds new tissues, repairs tissues, antibodies, enzymes, hormones, normal fluid balance, and other compounds


What are the primary roles of fat?

Provides long-term energy, insulation, and protection, insulator for body heat preservation; shock absorption; carries fat soluble vitamins


What are the primary roles of carbs?

Provides energy, regulates digestion, fat and protein, contributes to metabolism


General statements regarding water intake

Body weight ÷ 2 = number of ounces per day ( 8 oz equals one cup, or 1.9 liters)
Hyponatremia: Ingesting so much water that sodium levels in the blood are reduced to an unhealthy and even life-threatening level.


Risk factors for Osteoporosis

Age over 50
Family history of osteoporosis
Physical inactivity
Low-calcium diet
Extensive use of corticosteroids
Small frame
White or asian
Heavy drinking


What are scripturally based reasons for fasting?

To hear from God (Acts 13:2)
To intercede for others (Psalm 35:13)
As an act of repentance (Joel 1:13-14)
For strength and direction (Acts 14:23)
As an act of worship (Luke 2:37)