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1

A more or less continuous distribution of the products and by-products of human behavior on the land(s) surface(s), with a highly variable density

Archaeological record

2

What is the archaeological record

A spatial and contemporary phenomena

3

Where is the archaeological record

Everywhere people have been and left remains

4

What are the 5 ways deposition occurs

Colluvium, Alluvium, Aeolian, Buried, slope wash

5

The products and by-products of human behavior and may or may not be portable

Material remains

6

Number of artifacts in a certain area

density

7

How common something is in the selected space

Ubiquity

8

the buildings, tools, and other artifacts that constitute the material remains of former societies

material culture

9

Popular with Plato and Karl Marx; Life starts with the basic necessities of life (material reality) then people build their ideologies from that, life depends on real stuff

Materialism

10

Humanly made or modified portable objects; the products and by-products of human behavior

Artifacts

11

What is the life cycle of an artifact

Acquisition→Manufacture→Use→Discard (can be intentional or unintentional)

12

Organic and environmental remains which are not made or modified by people; however, they could be used, or affected by people

Ecofacts

13

Plant remains, animal bones and pollen are all examples

Ecofacts

14

Non-portable artifacts, such as pits, and architectural remains

features

15

examples of negative features (ones that have absolutely no chance of being moved)

post molds, storage pits

16

A spatial cluster of associated artifacts, ecofacts, and features. Boundaries of sites are arbitrary designations based on density considerations

sites

17

The collection of all contemporaneous artifacts and ecofacts from a cultural layer or spatial cluster

assemblage

18

A spatial cluster of contemporaneous archaeological sites created by a past culture; usually defined in terms of geography

Regions

19

Any processes natural or cultural which affect the archaeological record after it has been deposited

(Trans)Formation Processes

20

Includes the deliberate or accidental activities of humans, Involves the creation, use and discard of artifacts, Also includes subsequent human disturbances, such as plowing or even archaeology

Cultural formation processes

21

Natural or environmental events which govern the burial and survival of the archaeological record
Ex: Cryoturbation (freezing), solifluction (mass wasting, soil slumps), floralturbation (plants), faunalturbation (animals), and aquaturbation (water)

Natural formation processes

22

The scientific study of burial or deposition of bone assemblages, came from Franz Boas

Taphonomy

23

when many causes lead to same result

equifinality

24

The critical concept affected by formation processes is ____ which includes:
Provenience
Matrix
Association

Context

25

None of the archaeological record will be like Pompeii; had no formation processes until it was dug up
Sites should be conceptualized as through-flow systems, not frozen moments in time

The pompeii premise

26

What conditions promote the preservation of organic remains?

-Any context which reduces or eliminates bacterial activity
-Typically extreme environments with high or low Ph, or very hot and dry or very cold

27

What 3 things promote bone preservation

Calcium carbonate (found in Limestone) or shell (also calcium carbonate), Iron Oxide in sandy/dry (yellow/red ochre)

28

Very rare and telling of diets

Coprolites (Human feces)

29

Burials are better preserved in

sand, gravel, and dry

30

___ mummies in bogs/marshes are decently preserved

wet