Exam 2: Antibiotics-Notable Adverse Events Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2: Antibiotics-Notable Adverse Events Deck (25):
1

What are the two MAIN adverse events associated with the Erythromycin's Clarithromycin and Azithromycin?

1.Liver disease 2.Altering the QT interval of the heart

2

What dental drug is most counter indicated for use with Clarithromycin and Azithromycin?

The VASOCONSTRICTOR epinephrine, it will alter the QT interval of the heart

3

What are the 4 major classes of drugs that can PROLONG the QT interval of the heart?

Fluoroqunione, Macrolide, Azole antifungals, and Epinephrine

4

For Pedo antibiotic Rx: must calculate dose based on ___/___ body weight.

mg drug/ kg of body weight

5

As discussed before Tetracyclines chelate to divalent cations, to wait a minimum of ___ hours between eating dairy and taking tetracycline.

2 hours

6

Why are oral contraceptives weakened when on antibiotics? What do you recommend? BUT most have been cleared of this accusation EXCEPT WHICH DRUG?

Oral contraceptives are prodrugs that need gut bugs to produce the estrogen needed to stop pregnancy. Double up on protection....Rifapin for TB

7

What happens to the Pt's blood when they are taking warfarin and antibiotics?

it becomes very thin! (no more Vitamin K to compete with warfarin!)

8

Dangerous drug interaction with Metronidazole...avoid drinking EtOH and _______ for at least 3 days after.

propylene glycol

9

Our RED FLAG drugs are Macrolides AND _______.

AZOLE antifungals

10

Each year in the United States, at least ___ million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics

2

11

C. difficile causes deadly diarrhea and kills
at least _______ people each year!

14,000

12

Most deaths related to antibiotic resistance occur from drug-resistant infections picked up in _______ settings :(

health care

13

___% of hospital-squired infections are caused by drug resistant micro organisms

60%

14

What are the two ways a bug can become genetically resistant?

Chromosomal mutations and exchange of genetic material

15

Once a resistant bug has changed its DNA, what are the 3 ways it shows up?

1. inactivate drugs 2.prevent the uptake of the drug 3.active drug efflux out of the cell!

16

MRSA is observed with increasing frequency in persons with no links to _______ systems...here it comes!

healthcare

17

Resistant bacteria can be transmitted to humans through ______.

Foods...thanks Tyson chicken

18

Trends in resistance: Emerging among some ______, particularly those _____ that cause infections in transplant patients with weakened immune systems....Observed with some of the drugs used to treat _____ infections and influenza...Documented with drugs used to treat ______ infections...Developed to a variety of other parasites

fungi...fungi...HIV...malaria

19

What two bugs are URGENT threat level?

C Diff, N Gonorrhoeae (NO MRSA!!)

20

What threat level is MRSA?

Serious (in between urgent and concerning)

21

__________: Coordinated interventions designed to improve and measure the appropriate use of antimicrobials by promoting the selection of the optimal antimicrobial drug regimen, dose, duration of therapy, and route of administration.

Antibiotic Stewardship

22

What is the agency in charge of optimizing the use of antimicrobial therapy?

HA APRIL FOOLS! there is none.

23

The _______ supports broad implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs across all health care settings.

Infectious Diseases Society of Amurrica (IDSA)

24

Up to ____% of all the antibiotics prescribed are not needed or are not prescribed appropriately

50%...Holy Cow!

25

The four ways to reduce antibiotic resistance: 1. Give an adequate _____ 2. Take for an adequate _______ 3. Avoid repeated administration 4. Avoid ______ administration

dose...duration...topical (interesting)