Exam 2 biodiversity part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 biodiversity part 1 Deck (67):
1

Consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, descendants

Paraphyletic

2

Uses mutation rates to estimate the absolute time of evolutionary change

Molecular Clock

3

Waxy outer covering

Cuticle

4

First colonized land about 500 million years ago; followed onto land by insects and amphibians

Plants and Fungi

5

The synthesis of protein from an RNA template

Translation

6

Once diverse, but now restricted to one genus

Horsetails

7

What tree reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events

Maximum Likelihood

8

A tree where branch length indicates the amount of time involved

Chronogram

9

Symbiotic associations between fungi and land plants

Mycorrhizae

10

Ingests food (not self-made)

Heterotrophs

11

Amoeba-like (several groups of "amoebas")
Mostly heterotrophs
-Some mixotrophs
Unicellular
Includes forams
-Shelled "amoebas"
-Important fossils

Rhizaria

12

The synthesis of RNA from a DNA template

Transcription

13

What are the 3 Domains?

Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya

14

Conducts water and minerals, primarily dead cells, provides lots of structural support

Xylem

15

A tree where branch length indicates the amount of evolutionary change

Phenogram

16

Bacteria and Archaea

Prokaryotes

17

Sporophyte embryo, its food supply, a protective coat

Seed

18

"Protists"; plants, fungi, animals

Eukaryotes

19

Transfers pollen to the ovules

Pollination

20

Found everywhere but less common than bacteria, many extremophiles (not salty, what we'd call toxic environments), probably more closely related to eukaryotes than either are to bacteria

Domain Archaea

21

Most successful gymnosperms
-Most common species in this group
-Usually evergreen and has needles
Male cones produce pollen
Female cones produce ovules
-Familiar large cones
Pollen is wind dispersed, pollen tube forms, fertilization takes place, seeds mature, seeds wind dispersed, saplings germinate

Phylum Coniferophyta

22

Much smaller, DNA in the cytoplasm, no membrane-bound organelles, always unicellular and never multicellular

Prokaryotic Cells

23

Poisoned by oxygen and use fermentation or anaerobic respiration

Obligate Anaerobes

24

Proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes living within host cells

Endosymbiont Theory

25

2 key adaptations: flowers, fruits
More species than all other plants combined
A flower is a specialized shoot with up to 4 types of modified leaves

Angiosperms

26

Distributes sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
Made of living cells

Phloem

27

Transports water and nutrients, structural support

Vascular Tissues

28

The tree that requires the fewest evolutionary events is the best

Maximum Parsimony

29

Most successful group of seedless vascular plants

Ferns

30

"Middle animal life"
250-66 million years ago
Dinosaurs evolve and have their heyday
Mammals and flowering plants evolve
Ended with mass extinction caused by a meteorite

Mesozoic

31

Consists of a stalk called a filament, with a sac called an anther where the pollen is produced

Stamen

32

Photoautotrophs that generate oxygen, plant chloroplasts likely evolved from cyanobacteria via endosymbiosis

Cyanobacteria

33

Large group of bacteria, some are anaerobic and others are aerobic, mitochondria are in this group

Proteobacteria

34

Largely flagellated
-Move using 1 or 2 long whip-like hairs
Heterotrophs and mixotrophs
Unicellular
e.g. euglena

Excavata

35

Cells surrounding openings allowing for gas exchange

Stomata

36

Can ingest food and make food from the sun's energy

Mixotrophs

37

"Old animal life"
540-250 million years ago
Origin of animal phyla
Plants and animals conquered land
First fish, amphibians, reptiles
Synapsids at their heyday at the end
Ended with "The Great Dying"
-Most severe mass extinction known

Paleozoic

38

Focuses on:
Classifying organisms
Determining evolutionary relationships
Uncovering aspects of evolutionary history

Systematics

39

Groups organisms by common descent

Cladistics

40

Requires oxygen for cellular respiration

Obligate Aerobes

41

Found literally everywhere
Includes typical bacteria
Vital decomposers, oxygen producers, etc...
Vital to human digestion and other functions
Includes many disease causing species

Domain Bacteria

42

Fungi, animals, and their relatives
Many multicellular
Amoebozoans (classic amoebas, slime molds)
Opisthokonts (fungi and nuclearids, animals)

Unikonta

43

Much larger, DNA in nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, can be multicellular or unicellular

Eukaryotes

44

Change in one base

Nucleotide Substitution

45

Can survive with or without oxygen

Facultative Anaerobes

46

The identification, naming, and classification of species

Taxonomy

47

Means "naked seeds", seeds are exposed on cones

Gymnosperms

48

"Old plastid"
Plants and their relatives
Many multicellular
Red algae (e.g. Nori)
Green algae
-e.g. volvox: a colonial green algae
-Land plants evolved from within green algae

Archaeplastida

49

Consists of an ovary at the base and a style leading up to a stigma (where pollen is received), produces ovules

Carpels

50

Makes food from the sun's energy

Photoautotrophs

51

1 sperm fertilizes egg, 1 sperm contributes to endosperm

Double Fertilization

52

"New animal life"
66 million years ago-present
Flowering plants and mammals have their heyday
Humans evolve

Cenozoic

53

4.6 billion-540 million years ago
Formation of Earth
Origin of Life
First prokaryotes and eukaryotes
First multicellular organisms
First animals and plants

Precambrian

54

Counts the number of changes
fewer differences=closer relatives

Phenetics

55

Oldest known fossils, accumulation of sedimentary layers on bacterial mats, 3.5 billion years ago

Stromatolites

56

Small, inconspicuous, gametophyte (haploid) stage is dominant, look like small, flat mosses

Liverworts

57

Ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns

Phylum Monilophytes

58

Most successful group of nonvascular plants, gametophyte (haploid) stage is dominant

Mosses

59

Includes: apicomplexans (such as plasmodium), ciliates (such as Paramecium), diatoms, brown algae (kelp)
Largely photoautotrophs and mixotrophs
Distinct plastid across groups
Some multicellular examples

Chromalevolata

60

Club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts
First diverging vascular plants (seedless)
Surviving species are small herbaceous plants
Among earliest fossil trees

Phylum Lycophyta

61

Focuses of determining evolutionary relationships

Phylogenetics

62

Consists of the ancestor and all its descendants

Monophyletic

63

Consists of various species with different ancestors

Polyphyletic

64

Group of species that includes an ancestors and all its descendants

Clade

65

Consists of the mature ovary
-Protects seeds
-Aids in speed dispersal
-Can be either fleshy or dry
-Carried by: wind water or animals (externally, in feces)

Fruit

66

Succesful radiation (many branches on phylo. tree)
Grasses are a key part

Monicots

67

Most successful radiation (many branches on phylo. tree), most fruits flowers and trees part of this group

Eudicots