Flashcards in Exam 2 Book Questions And Previously Missed Deck (26):
What two causes noted in class are sources of nerve compression?
Destructive lesions of the vertebral bodies: tuberculosis hemangiomas, or osteoporosis
Congenital or acquired alterations of the curvatures of the spine: pregnancy, obesity, and the use of backpacks (more than 10% body weight)
Name for primary curve between occiput and C1.
What is unique about the intervertebral foramen at S5-Co1?
Two spinal nerves are present, S5 nerve & Co1 nerve
The length of the L5/S1 intervertebral foramen is increased beyond the pedicle by the ______________.
What is the lumbosacral tunnel? Explain "Far Out Syndrome".
The lumbosacral tunnel increases the length L5/S1 intervertebral foramen beyond the pedicle.
The transverse process of L5, sacral ala, and the lumbosacral ligament form the boundaries of the tunnel and provide additional sources of ENCROACHMENT for the L5 nerve.
Percentage of cross-sectional area available in the intervertebral foramen that is actually filled with neural tissue.
Measurements of the vertical height of the C1/C2 "intervertebral foramen" have shown the 76% of this available height is taken up by the ________________________.
Dorsal nerve root ganglion of C2
What anterior medullary feeder artery noted in class is predominately on the left side, seen usually within T9/T10 intervertebral foramen, accompanies the anterior nerve root, and is the principle supply of the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord?
Artery of Adamkiewicz (Arteria Radicalis Magna Anterior)
Characteristics of the Artery of Adamkiewicz (Arteria Radicalis Magna Anterior)
Predominately found on left side
Typically within T9/T10 intervertebral foramen
Anterior Medullary feeder and accompanies anterior nerve root
Principle supply of the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord
Describe Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.
*SAGITTAL DIAMETER OF THE SPINAL CANAL INCREASES
Pars defect association
More common with men
At L5/S1 level
Increase risk with women bearing more than 3 children
What happens to Sagittal diameter of the spinal canal in deter active spondylolisthesis?
Associated with pars defect; separates the inferior articular process, lamina, and spinous process from the rest of the vertebra
Describe Cervical Spondylolysis.
More common in men
Most common at C6
Typically associated with spondylolisthesis and spina bifida
Describe Lumbar Spondylolysis.
Not common with children under 5.
*Gender and location bias: men (L5/S1) and women (L4/L5)
Caused via repetitive stress
Increased incidence of spina bifida
Racial disparities: 50% Alaskans
The _____________ connects the tip of the coccyx to the back of the external anal sphincter.
Parts absent from the coccyx are what?
Pedicle, lamina-pedicle junction, lamina, vertebral foramen, and spinous process
How many coccygeal nerve pairs are identified in the fetus?
An intervertebral disc space of _________ is seen between S5 and coccyx in persons under 30 years old.
Muscles that have attachment sites on the sacrum
Psoas major, iliacus, Latissimus Dorsi, Iliocostalis Lumborum, Longissimus Thoracis, and multifidis
What ligament is a combining of the deep dorsal and superficial dorsal sacrococcygeal ligaments at the back of the vertebral bodies of Co1 and Co2 and represents the POINT OF TERMINATION OF THE SPINAL CANAL?
Posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
Imaginary midline where spinous processes are fused and spinous tubercles are apparent?
Median sacral crest
Type of joint in accessory sacro-iliac joint?
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia)
Describe Knife-Clasp Syndrome.
The spinous process is elongated and , on dorsiflexion, may enter a sacral spinal canal exhibiting spina bifida thus producing pain.
Concerning lumbers, what attaches transverse process to the sacral ala?
What creates the presence of a space between vertebral segments at the lamina? What procedure can be performed here?
Diminishment of shingling (overlap) of the lamina and lack of imbrication (overlap) of the spinous process.
Because the spinal cord terminates at L1, the lumbar region is an excellent site for a spinal tap