Exam 2 (Ch. 15-18) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 (Ch. 15-18) Deck (81):
1

Simon Bolivar

- "The Liberator"
- Venezuelan soldier
- Instrumental in revolutions in Latin America

2

Napoleon Boneparte

- Rose to power in a post-revolutionary coup d'etat; eventually proclaimed himself emperor
- French military leader and emperor
- Conquered much of Europe in the early 19th century

3

Estates General

- Leg. body in France called in 1789 to deal w/ France's financial problems

4

Third Estate

- Radical French political group
- Formed during the French Rev.
- Executed the French king

5

Sans Culottes

a lower-class Parisian republican in the French Revolution

6

Reign of Terror

- Campaign at the height of the French Rev.
- Used violence (systematic execution of opponents)

7

Haitian Revolution

Successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule

8

Toussaint L'Ouverture

Leader of Haitian Rev.

9

Bourgeroise

The middle class

10

Code Napoleon

- Codified laws into one legal framework applied to France and it's colones
- Model for emerging nation-states in Europe and Americas

11

Industrious Revolution

Dramatic economic change
-Families that had traditionally produced for themselves decided to work harder and longer hrs. to produce more for market
- Shift from peasant farming to specialized production

12

Industrial Revolution

- Gradual accumulation and diffusion of old and new technological knowledge
- Led to major economic changes

13

Nation-State

A sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent

14

Opium Wars

- British vs. Qing China over British trade in opium
- Result: British have the right to trade in 5 ports, gained Hong Kong

15

Gunboat Diplomacy

Foreign policy that is supported by the use or threat of military force
- Associated w/ British imperial power

16

Extraterritoriality

- After Opium Wars
- The right to be tried by British courts

17

Popular Sovereignty

Idea that the power of the states resides in the people

18

East India Company

- British charter company
- 18th c. - ruler of large part of India

19

Free Labor

Wage-paying rather than slave labor

20

Caste War

- Conflict btwn. Mayan Indians and the Mexican state over Indian autonomy and legal equality
- Result: Mexican takeover of Yucatan Penn.

21

Chartism

- A UK parliamentary reform movement of 1837–48, the principles of which were set out in a manifesto called The People's Charter
- Mass democratic mvt. to pass the Peoples' Charter in Britain, grating male suffrage, secret ballot, equal electoral districts, and annual parliaments

22

Fourierism

- From utopian socialism (Charles Fourier)
- Communities where work was made enjoyable
- Systems of production and distribution run w/out merchants

23

Liberalism

Political and social theory that advocates representative govt, free trade, and freedom of speech and religion

24

Millenarian

Convinced of the imminent coming of a just and ideal society

25

Decemberists

Russian army officers who were influenced by events in revolutionary France; formed secret societies that supported liberal govt

26

Marxism

- Form of scientific socialism
- rames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development

27

Proletariat

Industrial wage workers

28

Taiping Rebellion

- Rebellion by followers of Hong Xiuquan and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom against the Qing govt over the economic and social turmoil casued by the Opium War

29

Great Sepoy Rebellion

- Uprising in India against the East India Company
- Unsuccessful

30

Mfecane Movement

- African political revolts
- Caused by the expansionist methods of KIng Shaka of the Zulu People

31

Shaka Zulu

- One of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom
- Creating a fighting force that devastated the entire region

32

Muhammad Ali

- Ruler of Egypt
- Initiated set of modernizing reforms - set to make Egypt competitive w/ the great powers

33

Wahhabism

- One of the most powerful reform movements
- Preached the absolute oneness of Allah and a return to pure Islam of Muhammad

34

Tenskwatawa

- Shawnee prophet
- Urged disciples to return to traditional customs, reducing dependence on Euro. trade goods
- Message spread to other tribes

35

Tecumseh

- Shawnee who circulated Tenskwatawa's message of Indian resistance among Indian villages
- Need for Indian unity, resist American attempts to get them to sell more land
- Thousands of followers renounced their ties to colonial ways

36

Utopian Socialism

- Most visionary of all Restoration-era mvts.
- Dreamed of transforming states, workplaces, and human relations - proposed plans to do so

37

Restoration Period

- European mvt. after the defeat of Napoleon to restore Europe to its pre-French revolutionary status and quash radical mvts.

38

Sokoto Caliphate

- Located in West Africa
- One of the largest empires in Africa during the 19th century
- 1903: fell to British and French colonial rule

39

Congress of Vienna

- International conference to reorganize Europe after downfall of Napoleon

40

Revolutions of 1848

- Series of republican revolts against European monarchies, beginning in Sicily, and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire
- All ended in failure and repression, and were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberal

41

Chinese Exclusion Act

- Prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers

42

Suez Canal

- Channel built to connect the Mediterranean Sea w/ the Red Sea to lower trade costs

43

Raj

- British crown's administration of India following the end of the East India Company's rule

44

Cult of Domesticity (Separation of Spheres)

- Americans assumed that men and women naturally belonged in what they called separate “spheres.”
- Women inhabited a sphere comprising the home, church, and social visits they exchanged with each other.
- Men’s sphere was outside the home in the world of industry, commerce, and politics

45

Limited-Liability Joint-Stock Company

- Company that mobilized capital from a large number of investors (shareholders)
- They were not able to be held personally liable for financial loss of the comapany

46

Confederation of Canada

- Process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada

47

"Opening" of Japan

- American Commodore Matthew Perry led his four ships into the harbor at Tokyo Bay, seeking to re-establish for the first time in over 200 years regular trade and discourse between Japan and the western world

48

Russian Empire

- An empire that existed across Eurasia from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917

49

Meiji Restoration

- Strove to bolster Japan through reforms and industrialization

50

Alexander II

- Known as "Alexander the Liberator"
- Wave of "Great Reforms"
- Abolished serfdom, developed RR, Western-style judicial system
- Assassinated by terrorists

51

Empress Cixi

- Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908

52

Congo Free State

- Colony under the personal rule of King Leopold II of Belgium

53

Cecil Rhodes

- Championed British imperialism in southern Africa
- Controlled the British South Africa Company, which acquired Rhodesia and Zambia as British territories

54

Franco-Prussian War of 1870

- Destabilized and humiliated France
- Result: 3rd French Republic created; Rising anti-German nationalism and desire for revenge

55

German Empire

- German nation state that existed from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918

56

Otto von Bismarck

- Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890
- First Chancellor of the German Empire

57

Battle of Adwa

- Ethiopians defeated Italian colonial forces
- Inspired many of Africa's later national leaders

58

Russo-Japanese War

- Fought over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea
- First all-out war of the modern era in which a non-European power defeated one of Europe's great powers

59

Berlin Conference 1885

- Regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power

60

Second Industrial Revolution

- Phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th
- RR linked rural regions; electricity increased production potential and inventions sparked new industries
- New agriculture

61

Self Strengthening Movement

- Mvt. of reformist Chinese bureaucrats - attempted to adopt western elements of learning and technological skill while retaining Chinese culture

62

Shanghai School

- Style of painting
- Emphasis on spontaneous brushwork, feeling, and incorporation of western influences

63

Spanish-American War

- Result: US took over Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico
- Cuba won partial independence

64

Hundred Day Reforms

- Abortive modernizing reform program of the Qing govt
- Supported dev. of RR, state banking, postal system, institutions to foster agriculture, industry and commerce

65

Maji-Maji Revolt

- Swahili insurrection against German colonialists (East Africa)

66

Sino-Japanese Revolt

- Conflict over the control of Korea
- Result: China forced give Taiwan to Japan

67

Anglo-Boer War

- Anti-colonial struggle in S. Africa over the gold rich Transvaal
- Guerrilla war against British settlers vs. Afrikaners, Dutch colonial descendants of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and 4M Africans
- British used concentration camps to control hostile pop.

68

Boxer Rebellion

- Chinese peasant mvt. - opposed foreign influence
-> especially that of Christian missionaries
- Defeated by army of Japanese, Russians, British, French, and Americans

69

Mexican Revolution 1910

- Fueled by unequal distribution of land and by disgruntled workers
- Result: widespread reform and new constitution

70

Portfirio Diaz

- The Mexican Revolution was brought on by, among other factors, tremendous disagreement among the Mexican people over the dictatorship of President Porfirio Díaz ,who, all told, stayed in office for thirty one years

71

Pan Movements

- Groups that sought to link people across state boundaries in new communities based on ethnicity, or religion, etc...

72

Sun Yat-sen

- Chinese revolutionary and founder of the Nationalist Party in China

73

Modernists

- Generation of young artists, writers, scientists who broke older conventions and sought new ways of seeing and describing the world

74

The Woman Question

- Questioned the fundamental roles of women in Western industrialized countries

75

Young Turks

- A member of a revolutionary party in the Ottoman Empire who carried out the revolution of 1908 and deposed the sultan Abdul Hamid II

76

Revolution of 1905 (Russian Revolution)

- Instrumental in convincing Tsar Nicholas II to attempt the transformation of the Russian government from an autocracy into a constitutional monarchy

77

Paul Gauguin

- French post-impressionist artist
- Known for his experimental use of color

78

Pablo Picasso

- Spanish artist

79

"Bourgeoise and Proletariat": From the Communist Manifesto

- Foretold the inevitable overthrow of bourgeois-dominated capitalism by the working classes and the transition to socialism and ultimately communism

80

"The Origin of Species"

- Described process of natural selection - nature creates overabundance so that the "fittest" survive and adapt themselves to their environment

81

"A Muslim Philosopher Describes why Islam has become Weak"

- Tried to convince the intellectual and political leaders in Arab and Ottoman-ruled lands to put aside their many differences and draw on their shared commitment to Islam in order to ward off Europe's ambitions in their religion