Exam 2: Ch 19 Fetal Circulation & Congenital Cardiac Defects Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Exam 2: Ch 19 Fetal Circulation & Congenital Cardiac Defects > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2: Ch 19 Fetal Circulation & Congenital Cardiac Defects Deck (18):
1

physiology of fetal circulation

low PO2 (30-35 mmHg)

high CO

Hgb has high O2 affinity

2

umbilical arteries and veins in fetal circulation

arteries: take off from femorals, carry low O2 blood to placenta

veins: flow into liver, carry high O2 blood from placenta to fetus

3

ductus venosus (fetal circ)

bypasses hepatic tissue

joins IVC (brings high O2 blood)

mixing reduces O2 saturation

4

ductus arteriosus

opening from pulmonary artery to aorta

allows blood to bypass lungs: closes at birth

5

foramen ovale

opening from right to left artium

allows blood to bypass lungs: closes at birth

6

shunting

movement of blood between pulmonary and systemic circulations

direction determined by pressure (resistance)

7

L --> R shunt defect

from LA to RA, LV to RV, aorta to PA

ASD, VSD, PDA

produce little cyanosis

8

R --> L shunt defect

flow from RV to LV through VSD when pulmonary valve resistance is high (doesn't go through lungs)

tetrology of Fallot

transposition of great vessels

cyanosis

high PA blood flow --> PA HTN

9

diagnosis/treatment of shunting defects

Dx: ultrasound, fetal echoes after 16wks

Rx: supportive medical care, surgery

10

PDA

blood flows from aorta to PA (doesn't close L --> R shunt)

Rt HF, pulmonary edema

treatment: indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin syn., or surgery

11

ASD/VSD

blood flows from LV to RV or LA to RA (L --> R shunt)

Rt HF and pulmonary edema

pulmonary HTN in VSD

treatment: spontaneous of catheter closure

12

tetralogy of Fallot

VSD, pulmonary stenosis, overriding aorta (over VSD), RV hypertrophy and HTN

blood flows from RV to LV (R --> L shunt) --> aorta receives blood from both RV and LV

blue baby

surgery

13

transposition of great vessels

aorta from RV and PA from LV

must have some communication between circuits for life (PDA or septal defect)

prostaglandins keep PDA open, surgery

14

coarctation of aorta

narrow aorta

BP in arms > legs

balloon angioplasty or open surgery

15

only functional single ventricle

single Rt or Lt

single Rt with hypoplastic left

RV supplies lungs and systemic circulation via PDA

palliative surgery, but no full correction possible

16

Kawasaki disease

acute vasculitis which may involve coronary arteries

immune system origin

acquired heart disease of young children

17

symptoms of Kawasaki disease

conjunctivitis

hand and foot swelling

swollen cervical lymph nodes

CA aneurysms

18

treatment of Kawasaki disease

gamma globulin

aspirin