Exam 2 (Ch. 4 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 (Ch. 4 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells) Deck (77):
1

prokaryotic cell (4 things and ex.)

1. DNA not in a membrane (no nucleus)
2. very small
3. cell walls have peptidoglycan
4. no membrane bound organelles
ex: Bacteria

2

eukaryotic cell (4 things and ex.)

1. DNA in a membrane (nucleus)
2. larger and more complex
3. cell wall when present is simple
4. membrane bound organelles (golgi, lysosomes, mitochondria)
ex: animals, plants fungi

3

similarities in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (3 things)

1. contain carbs, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
2. use chemical reactions to metabolize food, build protein and store energy
3. contain cell membrane

4

advantages to prokaryotes for being small (3 things)

1. reproduce quickly
2. adapt easily to their env't
3. simple organization

5

coccus (def.)

spherical

6

bacillus (def.)

rod-shaped

7

spirillum (def.)

spiral

8

pleomorphic (def.)

many shapes

9

strepto (def.)

chains

10

staphylo (def.)

grape-like clusters

11

diplo (def.)

pairs (2)

12

tetrad (def.)

groups of fours

13

flagellum (def.)

structure used for motility

14

monotrichous (def.)

one flagellum at one end

15

amphitrichous (def.)

one flagellum and each end

16

lophotrichous (def.)

tuft of flagella at one or more ends

17

peritrichous (def.)

flagella around entire surface

18

movement of flagella is..

clockwise or counter clockwise

19

run means to

move in one direction

20

tumble means to

stop and change direction

21

taxis means

movement toward or away from a stimulus

22

positive taxis is

movement towards a stimulus

23

negative taxis is

movement away from a stimulus

24

chemotaxis (def.)

movement involving chemicals

25

phototaxis (def.)

movement involving light

26

geotaxis (def.)

movement involving gravity

27

fimbriae (3 things)

1. appendage that is shorter and straighter than flagella
2. 2-100s per cell
3. used for attachment

28

pili (3 things)

1. longer than fimbriae
2. 1-2 per cell
3. used in conjugation to attach to each other

29

glycocalyx is _________ in all bacteria

not present

30

glycocalyx (3 things)

1. made of polysaccharides
2. found outside the cell wall
3. protects cell

31

all bacteria ________ a cell wall

have

32

glycocalyx (2 types)

capsule and slime layer

33

capsule (3 things)

1. firmly attached to cell wall
2. protects bacteria from phagocytosis
3. nigrosin detects this

34

slime layer (4 things)

1. loosely attached to cell wall
2. protects from water loss
3. made up of polysaccharides
4. outside cell wall

35

prokaryotic cell wall (def.)

semi-rigid structure outside the cell-membrane

36

2 functions of the cell wall

protect and give shape

37

the cell wall is the site where

many antibiotics damage bacteria

38

cell walls can only be seen clearly with

an electron microscope

39

peptidoglycan is the __________ of the cell wall

main component

40

name the two monosaccharides that are in the cell wall

NAG and NAM

41

NAG stands for

N-acetylglucosamine

42

NAM stands for

N-acetylmuramic acid

43

how are NAG and NAM arranged

they alternate

44

what forms the cross bridges in a cell wall

amino acids

45

how many layers in a gram-positive cell wall

25-30

46

gram positive cell wall contains what that the negative wall doesn't

teichoic acid

47

teichoic acid (3 things)

1. acidic polysaccharide
2. gives cells surface a negative charge
3. prevents lyses

48

gram negative cell wall has how many layers

10 or less

49

negative cell wall does not have

teichoic acid

50

what additional layer does a negative wall have that a positive wall does not

LPS layer

51

where is the LPS layer located

outside the peptidoglycan

52

what does LPS stands for

Lipopolysaccharide

53

the LPS layer is _________ to humans

toxic

54

LPS layer is responsible for

infections and is resistant to antibiotics

55

cell membrane (4 things)

1. structure below cell wall
2. forms a phospholipid bilayer, similar to eukaryotes
3. acts as a selective barrier
4. site of ATP production

56

simple diffusion (def.)

movement of molecules from areas of high to low concentration

57

osmosis (def.)

diffusion of H2O across the cell membrane

58

solute (def.)

something added to a solvent that is dissolved

59

solvent (def.)

typically a liquid and this is what dissolves the solute

60

solution (def.)

mixture of the solvent and solute

61

hypotonic solution (explain)

higher concentration of H2O outside the cell and so it moves into the cell, making it so the concentration of solutes outside the cell is lower, the cell lysis (bursts)

62

hypertonic solution (explain)

there is a higher concentration of solutes inside the cell and so the solutes move out of the cell making it so that the concentration is higher outdid the cell. The cell cremates (shrinks)

63

isotonic solutions (2 things)

1. cell remains intact
2. equal concentrations inside and outside of the cell

64

cytoplasm (3 things)

1. jelly-like substance found inside the cell
2. 80% water
3. contains carbs, proteins, lipids, and genetic material

65

nucleoid (def.)

cluster of genetic material

66

ribosomes (4 things)

1. structure that directs protein synthesis
2. composed of 2 subunits
3. smaller that eukaryotic ribosomes
4. very numerous in cells that are actively growing

67

inclusions (3 things)

1. large storage molecules made up of C, N, S, or P
2. formed when these elements are abundant
3. not always present

68

endospores contain a _______ cell wall

thick

69

endospores are produced when

nutrients are limited

70

endospores are able to survive conditions such as

heat, lack of water, exposure to chemicals

71

endospores can live for

25 million years

72

once conditions are favorable, endospores are converted back to their

vegetative state

73

the cloudier a tube is = the more...

bacterial growth there is

74

sporulation (def.)

process of making spores

75

what two can produce spores

Clostridium and Bacillus

76

how are spores killed

autoclave

77

autoclave (def.)

heat under pressure for 20 min.