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Flashcards in Exam 2 ch 5 Deck (34)
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The tendency of children to insist on having things done in a particular way. This can include clothes, food, bedtime routines, and so on

Just right

1

Practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities

Injury control/harm reduction

2

Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse

Primary prevention

3

Actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation

Secondary prevention

4

Actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event occurs and that are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability

Tertiary prevention

5

The area of the cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control

Prefrontal cortex

6

The process by which axons become coated with myelin

Myelination

7

The tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time

Perseveration

8

A long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication between them

Corpus callosum

9

Referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain

Lateralization

10

The major brain region crucial to the development of emotional expression and regulation

Limbic system

11

A tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety

Amygdala

12

A brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especial memory for locations

Hippocampus

13

A brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body

Hypothalamus

14

Piaget's term for cognitive development between 2-6; it includes language and imagination but logical thinking is not yet possible

Preoperational intelligence

15

The concept that an object or word can stand for something else, including something pretend or something not seen

Symbolic thought

16

The belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive

Animism

17

A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child focuses on one idea, excluding all others

Centration

18

Piaget's term for young children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective

Egocentrism

19

A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent

Focus on appearance

20

A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing changes

Static reasoning

21

A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone

Irreversibility

22

The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same even when its appearance changes

Conservation

23

Vygotsky's term for the skills that a person can exercise with assistance, not yet independently

Zone of proximal development (ZPD)

24

Temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process

Scaffolding

25

The tendency of children to copy an action that is not a relevant part of the behavior to be learned

Overimitation

26

The idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear

Theory-theory

27

The speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning

Fast-mapping

28

The application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur

Overregularization

29

A person who is fluent in two languages, not favoring one over the other

Balanced bilingual