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Flashcards in Exam 2 ch 6 Deck (40)
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The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed

Emotional regulation

1

Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them

Initiative versus guilt

2

A person's understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self-esteem...

Self-concept

3

A drive that comes from inside a person

Intrinsic motivation

4

A drive that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside

Extrinsic motivation

5

Make-believe friends who exist only in a child's imagination...

Imaginary friends

6

An illness or disorder of the mind

Psychopathology

7

Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts

Externalizing problems

8

Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward

Internalizing problems

9

Play that mimics aggression, but in which there is no intent to harm

Rough-and-tumble play

10

Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create

Sociodramatic play

11

An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication

Authoritarian parenting

12

An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control

Permissive parenting

13

An approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children

Authoritative parenting

14

An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives

Neglectful/uninvolved parenting

15

Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body shape

Sex differences

16

Differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females

Gender differences

17

Fred's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure

Phallic stage

18

The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers' exclusive love

Oedipus complex

19

In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents

Superego

20

The unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their fathers' exclusive love

Electra complex

21

An attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else

Identification

22

A child's cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences

Gender schema

23

The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person

Empathy

24

Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person

Antipathy

25

Actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them

Prosocial behavior

26

Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person

Antisocial behavior

27

Hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it

Instrumental aggression

28

An impulsive retaliation for another person's action, verbal or physical

Reactive aggression

29

Nonphysical acts aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people

Relational aggression