Exam 2 - Endocrine System/ Bone & Cartilage Histology Flashcards Preview

Histology Exam Review > Exam 2 - Endocrine System/ Bone & Cartilage Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 - Endocrine System/ Bone & Cartilage Histology Deck (97):
1

what type of feedback system is more stable?

complex feedback systems

2

endocrine glands are more parenchyma or stroma?

parenchyma

3

protein and Polypeptides -
Hydrophilic/ Lipophilic? Synthesized where? Stored? Bind to what and do what?

hydrophilic, synthesized in the RER, stored in granules (ex insulin), bind to receptors on cell membrane and activate 2nd messengers

4

tyrosine derrivatives
what are two types? Hydrophilic/ Lipophilic? Bind to what and do what?

Thyroxine - lipophilic, binds to cytoplasmic receptors, acts as a transcription factor
Epinephrine- hydrophillic, binds to gprotein on cell membrane, activates 2nd messenger

5

steroid derrivatives
- Hydrophilic/ Lipophilic? Synthesized where? Stored? Bind to what and do what?

lipophilic - carried in blood by albumin, synthesized in SER, NOT stored, binds to cytoplasmic receptors, acts as a transcription factor

6

posterior pituitary from from the

neurohypophyseal bud

7

other names for the anterior pituitary

pars distalis, adenohypophysis, pars anterior

8

what forms the infundibulum

the neurohypophyseal bud

9

neurohypophyseal bud is what?

invagination of neuroectoderm that forms the future posterior pituitary

10

what forms the anterior pituitary?

hypophyseal pouch (rathke's pouch)

11

how is the anterior pituitary formed?

the hypophyseal pouch(aka rathke's pouch) is an invagination of oral ectoderm

12

other names for the posterior pitutiary

pars nervosa, neurohypophysis

13

the Pars nervosa releases what?

ADH and oxytocin

14

are there cell bodies present in the pars nervosa?

the only cell bodies present are glial cell bodies

15

are there secretory cells in the Pars Nervosa?

no secretory cells in the pars nervosa/anterior pituitary

16

what is the pars distalis?

anterior pituitary

17

what does the pars distalis release?

HGH,ACTH,TSH,LH,FSH,PRL

18

this cell releases growth hormone and prolactin

acidophils of the pars distalis

19

this cell releases TSH, FSH, LH

basophils of the pars distalis

20

chromotropin

not sure; maybee stem cell, exhausted secretoy cell- pale and not stained

21

an invagination of neuroectoderm form what?

the neurohypophyseal bud- posterior pituitary and infundibulum

22

pituitary adenoma

disorder of the anterior pituitary that a benign tumor forms. it is grows too large it can casue a hyper secretion of prolactin or mass effects by compressing the brain stem

23

posterior pituitary hypersecretion

too much ADH- retention of solue free h20 = hyponatrmia

24

symptom of hyper and hyposecretion of the posterior pituitary

thirst

25

hyposecretion of the posterior pituitary

reduced ADH - loose capacity to concentrate urine = cental diabetes insipidus - extreme dehydration

26

what part of the adrenal gland essential for life? and what product and what area of the organ is soo essential.

The adrenal cortex is essential for life - mineralocorticoids, specifically aldosterone produced by the zona glomerulosum is essential for life

27

the adrenal medulla is derrived from

neural crest cells

28

the adrenal cortex is derrived from

coelomic epithelium = mesoderm

29

the parenchymal cells of the adrenal medulla are derrived from ____ which are what type of cells?

adrenal medulla derrived from neural crest cells = chromaffin cells

30

what is the largest zone of the adrenal cortex

zona fasiculata

31

what type of hormones are secreted from the adrenal cortex?

steroid hormones

32

steroid hormones are derrived from?

cholesterol

33

are steroid hormones stored?

no

34

what does the zona reticularis secrete

DHEA

35

smallest zone of the adrenal cortex

zona reticularis

36

what do glucocorticoids do?

gluconeogenesis, break down fat and proteins, and suppress the mmune system (anti -inflammatory)

37

what does aldosterone do?

aldosterone stimulates the resorption of sodium by collection tubules and ducts of te kidneys, water then follows passively.

38

cushings syndrome

excess cortisol

39

addisson's disease

insufficient cortisol

40

pheochromocytoma

secrete excess catecholamines

41

the thyroid produces what from what?

makes t3 and t4 from thyroglobulin

42

the parenchyma of the thyroid gland

rounded epithelial follicles

43

what is the colloid

the colloid contains glycoprotein and thyroglobulin

44

does te thyroid store its secretory product?

the thyroid is the only endocrine gland to store its secretory product (3 months)

45

how are t3, and t4 produced?

when needed the folicular cells phagocytose the colloid and cleave it into t3 and t4 for release into the blood stream

46

parafollicular cells

(throid cells) secrete calcitonin- inhibit osteoclasts

47

thyrocytes/follicular cells

cleaves thyroglobulin into t3 and t4.

48

where is thyroglobulin made?

the colloid of the thyroid gland

49

hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis)

autoimmune disorder that destroys the follicular cells- thus low t3 and t4 levels. High TSH levels b/c not under negative feedback loop
symptoms= wight gain, fatigue

50

hyperthyroidism (graves disease)

antibodies to TSH chronically stimulate follicular cells to synthesis and release hormone= wight loss, heat intolerance

51

what affect does PHT have on the body

increases octeoclasts, increase ca absorption in the kidneys and inceased activated vitamin d = increase ca absorption in stomach

52

the parathyroid gland is derrived from what pharyngeal arches?

superior - 4th arch
inferior - 3rd arch

53

what cells produce PTH

principal (chief cells)

54

hyperparathyroidism

hypercalcemia = decalcification of bones- leads to kidney stones

55

hypoparathyroidism

increase bone density, mental confusion, life threating, from the removal/ destruction of glands

56

what gland produces melatonin?

pineal gland

57

The pineal gland develops from what?

pineal gland develops from neuroectoderm- remains attached to brain

58

corpora arenacea

(brain sand) - concentration of mg and ca salts in the pineal gland

59

what affect does melatonin have on the body?

diurna fucntion- converts sensory input to changes in hormone function (light vs dark)

60

cartilage is composed of what type of collagen

type 2

61

what causes scurvy?

a vtamin C defficiency b/c vitamin C is needed to help hydroxylate proline and lysine in type 1 collagen

62

what types of collagen aggregate in fibrils and or fibers

collagen 1-3 fibrils
collagen 1&3 into fibers
collagen 2 remains a fibril

63

what cell attaches cells the the ECM in hyaline cartilage?

chondronectin

64

perichondrium

sources of chrondrogenic cells and chrondroblasts for growth and repair of cartilage. surrounds permanent hyaline cartilage except articular cartilage. Also present in elastic cartilage but NOT fibrocartilage

65

isogenous aggregates

groups of 4-8 cells that originated for mitotis divisons of a single chrondrocyte

66

chondrocytes reside

in lacunae

67

territorial matrix

rich in gags, stains darker, surrounds lacuna

68

what secretes ECM in cartilage

chrondroblasts and young chrondrocytes secrete ECM

69

appositional growth

chrondroblasts in perichondrium differentiate into chrondrocytes - produce matrix adding to existing cartilage

70

interstitial growth

proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes

71

articular cartilage

no perichondrium in articular cartilage thus resident chondrocytes serves as the progenitor cells

72

elastic cartilage

more cell and matric than hyaline, has a periochondrium

73

fibrocartilage

no perichondrium, little gound substancem mostly fibers (type 1 & 2) , ex pubic symphysis and intervertebral disks

74

periosteum attached to compact bone via

sharpey's fibers

75

osteocytes derrived from

mesenchymal cells

76

osteoclasts derrived from

macrophages

77

osteoclasts activated by

PTH - increases bone resorption

78

osteoclasts inhibited by

calcitonin ( produced from parafollicular cells) which decrease bone resorption

79

type of collage in bone

type 1

80

bone has more organic or inorganic material

inorganic - hydroyapatite = 65%

81

primary bone

woven bone

82

secondary bone

lamellar bone

83

desmosomes join osteons together at

cement lines

84

remnants of remodeled osteons

interstitial lamellae

85

intramembranous ossification occurs from what? and where?

bone depositived from connective tissue, growth of diameter of bones and the initiation of growth in the diaphysis,
ex. flat bones of the mandible and skull

86

endochondral ossification

ossification from existing cartilage
growth of long bones @ epiphysial plate

87

what percent of total bone replaced yearly by bone remodeling?

10%

88

space formed under osteoclasts?

howships lacunae

89

a bone fracture is invaded by what types of cells?

myofibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts

90

how do bones heal?

by intramembranous and endochondral ossification

91

osteoporosis

osteoclasts> osteoblasts

92

what does estrogen do

antiresorptive- prevent the apoptosis of osteoblasts

93

vitamin d shortage effect on bone

inability to absorb calcium

94

osteopetrosis

deffective osteoclasts thus osteoblasts unopposed

95

what is the protein RANk-L?

expressed on the surface of osteoblasts that can bind to a receptor on monocytes to transform into osteoclasts

96

what nucleus in the hypothalamus produces oxytocin vs. ADH

Oxytocin - paraventricular nucleus
ADH - Supraoptic nucleus

97

secretion of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa requires ______?

ACTH