Exam 2 (Fall 2013) Flashcards Preview

Intro to Psychology > Exam 2 (Fall 2013) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 (Fall 2013) Deck (55):
1

Learning

process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.

2

Associative learning

our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence.

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Acquistion

the initial stage, when one links neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response.

4

Extinction

the diminishing of a conditioned response, when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus

5

Higher-order conditioning

procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditions experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus.

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Spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.

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Generalization

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.

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Discrimination

the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.

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Current applications of Classical Conditioning in the “real world.”

Helping drug addicts recover by steering clear of places where they’ve experienced “highs” so it won’t trigger them.
The body’s disease fighting immune system with drug taste may be conditioned to produce an immune response.

10

Law of Effect

Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.

11

Operant chamber

containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking.

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Shaping

reinforcers guide behavior towed closer approximations of the desired behavior

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Positive reinforcement

adding something desirable. Increases the behavior

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Negative reinforcement

ending something unpleasant. Increases behavior

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Positive punishment

adding something unpleasant. Reduces behavior.

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Negative punishment

taking something pleasant away. Reduces behavior

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disadvantages of using Punishment

May restart when punishment is over.
Instead of learning, one might learn to discriminate between different situations.
One might learn fear or hatred.
Models aggression and control as method of dealing with problems.

18

Latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.

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Intrinsic motivation

the desire to perform a behavior effectively and for its own sake

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Extrinsic motivation

behaving in certain ways to gain external rewards or avoid threatened punishment.

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Observational learning

learning by observing others

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Modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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Mirror neurons

frontal love neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.

24

Prosocial effect

positive, constructive, helpful behavior. Actions that benefit others

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Antisocial effect

actions harmful to others.

26

id

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

27

ego

the largely conscious “executive” part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

28

superego

the part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

29

Free association

a method of exploring the unconscious mind in which a person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind.

30

Self actualizing

one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.

31

Unconditional positive regard

an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

32

Self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”

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Trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-port inventories and peer reports.

34

Personality inventory

a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors, used to assess selected personality traits

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Social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context.

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Reciprocal determinism

back and forth without primary cause

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Internal locus of control

we are in charge of ourselves

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External locus of control

some outside force controls our fate

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Learned helplessness

when animals and people experience no control over repeated bad events, they often learn helplessness.

40

Spotlight effect

overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

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Self-serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

42

Regression

Retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

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Reaction formation

Switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites

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Projection

Disguising one’s own threatening impulses by attracting them to others

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Rationalization

Offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one’s actions

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Displacement

Shifting social or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person

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Denial

Refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities

48

current applications of Classical Conditioning

Helping drug addicts recover by steering clear of places where they’ve experienced “highs” so it won’t trigger them.
The body’s disease fighting immune system with drug taste may be conditioned to produce an immune response.

49

Latent learning significance

It proves that there is more to learning than associating a response with a consequence; there is also cognition.

50

current applications of Operant Conditioning

Monitoring high blood pressure, gaining social skills, reinforcement technologies in schools, sports, workplaces, and homes.

51

Mirror neuron's importance in observational learning

The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy.

52

Who is typically considered the founder of Psychoanalytic theory?

SIgmund Freud

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How did the neo-Freudians mainly differ from Freud’s ideas?

They believed that childhood social, NOT sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formation.

54

What did Roger’s consider the necessary elements in gaining a positive self-concept?

Genuineness
Acceptance
Empathy

55

What are some benefits of high self esteem?

Fewer sleepless nights, less likely to succumb to peer pressure, less shy, anxious, and lonely, just happier.