Exam 2 -- Fiber Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 -- Fiber Deck (39)
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Define Total Fiber

Nondigestible plant polysaccharides that contain beta 1-4 glycosidic linkages which cannot be digested by enzymes in the human alimentary tract

1

What is the difference between dietary fiber and functional fiber?

Dietary fiber is the fiber found in foods. Functional fiber is the fiber added to foods or taken as supplements that have shown to have health benefits.

2

Give an example of dietary fiber

Fruits and vegetables

3

Which fiber molecule is found mostly in legumes, wheat bran, nuts, and root vegetables?

Cellulose

4

Which fiber molecule is found in apples, strawberries, raspberries, citrus fruits, and oat products?

Pectin

5

Which fiber molecule is large, has bonding that is non-digestible by enzymes, and is found in whole-grain food products?

Hemicellulose

6

Name the three fiber molecules that are water in soluble

Cellulose, some hemicelluloses, Lignan

7

Name the 7 fiber molecules that are water-soluble

Pectin, gums, beta glucans, fructans, mucilages, algal polysaccharides, some hemicelluloses

8

Where is cellulose found in nature?

Plant cell walls

9

What purpose does gum serve in food?

For filling purposes

10

Which type of fiber has a greater water holding capacity? Soluble or insoluble?

Soluble

11

Why does fiber make you feel more satiated? What can it help you with?

You feel more satiated because it absorbs water and gets bigger and bigger. It can help with weight loss when you are feeling more satiated.

12

Why is too much fiber bad for you?

Too much fiber leads to less effective digestion because gastric juices and enzymes become trapped in fiber molecules

13

What effect does fiber have on the stomach emptying rate?

It slows down the stomach emptying rate and makes you feel more satiated

14

Does fiber increase or decrease food transit time?

Fiber both increases and decreases transit time

15

In the small intestine, do we want food to go slower or faster?

Slower so that it can absorb more nutrients

16

What is the term for a food transit that is moving too fast?

Diarrhea

17

What is the term for when food transit is moving too slow?

Constipation

18

Explain why it is good to have fiber with cholesterol intake

Fiber can bind to bile acids, so the body must utilize stored cholesterol to create its own bile acids. Therefore, you will not be absorbing as much cholesterol

19

Name the six physical properties of fiber

Water holding capacity, viscosity, ion exchange capacity, finding of organic compounds, bacterial fermentation, antioxidant

20

Water holding capacity is greatest in fibers with little amounts of _______ bonding (ie soluble)

Intramolecular

21

Is soluble fiber or insoluble fiber more viscous? (thicker)

Soluble is more viscous (thick)

22

Fiber has an ion exchange capacity, binding easily to cations. Explain how this will affect absorption.

When too much fiber is ingested, the fiber sticks to cations such as zinc and calcium which in turn have trouble being absorbed

23

Is binding of fiber to organic compounds greater in soluble or insoluble fiber? Give examples of organic compounds

Soluble; cholesterol & bile acids

24

Anaerobic bacteria can digest many fiber molecules except for _____

Lignin

25

_____ is the sensation in your stomach walls that tell you when you're full

Distention

26

Define transit time

Time that food is in the small and large intestine

27

Name the 10 physiological roles of fiber

Delayed gastric empty, satiety, transit time altered, altered nutrient absorption, increased fecal bulk, increased bile acid and cholesterol secretion, increased microflora in the colon, reduction of free radicals, altered intestinal morphology, reduced 2 degree bile formation

28

In regards to intestinal transit time, what is the difference between ingesting soluble and insoluble fibers?

Insoluble=normalized transit time
Soluble=delayed tt (compared to insoluble)

29

Will ingesting more insoluble fiber give you smaller or bigger poops?

Bigger