Exam 2 (part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 (part 1) Deck (86):
1

All cells have...

Proteins

Nucleic acids

Carbs

Plasma membranes

2

Ribosome structure and function

Made of rna and protein

Used for protein synthesis

3

Energy

Ability to do work or supply heat

4

Potential energy is related to

Position of shared electrons in covalent bonds

5

Chemical energy

Molecules potential to form stronger bonds

A type of potential energy

6

Thermal energy is

(Don't say heat)

Kinetic energy of molecular motion

7

Temperature is a measure of...

Thermal energy in a molecule

8

Heat is a measure of

Thermal energy being transferred between two objects

9

Two factors that determine spontaneity of a reaction...

Entropy

Hi to lo potential energy

10

Reactions proceed in the direction that results in...

Lower PE

And Increased disorder

11

A nucleic acid is ------ of nucleotide ------

Polymer

Monomer

12

Nucleotide components

Phosphate group

Five carbon sugar (pentose)

A nitrogenous base

13

Monomers of rna

Ribonucleotides

14

Monomer of DNA

Deoxyribonucleotides

15

Difference between DNA and rna

DNA is more stable

Rna can replicate itself

DNA has h on carbon 2' and rna has oh on carbon 2'

(Both have oh on carbon 3')

16

Two groups of nitrogenous bases

Purines and pyrmidines

17

Purines

Adenine

Guanine

(Two rings)

18

Pyrimidines

Cytosine

Thymine

Uracil

(One ring)

19

Nucleotides polymerize to form------ via -------- reactions

Nucleic acids

Condensation reactions

20

Nucleotides are bonded together via -------- bond via carbon - --and - ---

Phosphodiester bond

3' oh group - 5' phosphate group

21

Phosphodiester linkages form a --------- backbone

Sugar - phosphate backbone

22

New nucleotides are added to nucleic acids from ----- to -----

5' (phosphate) to 3' (oh) end

23

Polymerization requires ------ that comes from------

Energy catalyzed by enzymes

24

ATP is an example of

Don't say energy source

Activated (adenine) nucleotide

Aka nucleotide with three phosphate groups

25

Antiparallel means

One strand runs 5' to 3' and the other runs 3' to 5'

26

DNA has a hydro---- inside and hydro----- outside

Phobic inside

Phillic outside (phosphate)

27

Primary, secondary and tertiary DNA structure

1 - sequence of nucleotides
2 - double stranded
3 - histone hair clips hold DNA together in chromosomes

28

Compact DNA leads to...

Discrete units for cell division

Helps DNA fit in nucleus

Contribute to its function (replication?)

29

DNA needs --- to replicate

Enzymes

30

Hairpin structure

Secondary structure of rna aka stem and loop structure wehere DNA folds on itself to pair (one strand)

31

Rna tertiary structure

Forms when rna secondary structure folds on itself to form more complex shape

32

Ribozymes

Rna that functions as an enzyme by catalyze for phosphodiester bonds aka polymerization

33

saccharide

aka carbohydrate

34

monosaccharide

simple sugar

35

examples of moosacharides

fructose, glucose

36

polysaccharide examples (5)

glycogen starch peptidoglycan chitin and cellulose

37

sugar functions (in detail)

cell structure (fibrous material), energy storage (chemical energy), cell identity (precursor for large molecules like nucleotides or amino acids)

38

carbs are hydro-

philic

39

monosacharide structural differences

-location of carbonyl group (aldose ketose)
-# of carbons
-spatial arangement of atoms
-linear and alternative ring forms

40

lactose is made of

galactose (oh facing up) and glucose (oh facing down)

41

molecular formula for a sugar

ch2o

42

aldose vs ketose

aldose = carbonyl at end of carbon chain
ketose = carbonyl group in middle of chain

43

a or b-1,4 linkage is stronger and why

b-1,4 bcuz hydrogen bonding potential

44

maltose is made of

glucose and glucose

45

carb. bond name

glycosidic linkage (covalent bond)

46

glycosidic linkage is a _____ rxn

condensation

47

fiber functions

prevents constipation and helps you feel full

48

carb cell identity types

glycoprotein and glycolipids, display info on outside of cell

49

cell identity allows cells to....

self identification (cell cell recognition) and cell-cell signaling (communiction between cells)

50

______ and ______ hydrolyze polysaccharides to release glucose

(enzymes) (animal cells)phosphorylase in glycogen and amylase in starch digestion

51

what polysaccharides are easily hydrolyzed? why?

dtarch and glycogen becuz a 1,4 linkage easier to breakdown

52

energy is stored in glucose to make... via what process....

atp, cell respiration

53

chitin and peptidoglycan structure commonality

amino group attached

54

sucrose

glucose and fructose

55

three most common lipids in cells

fats (triglycerides) steriods and phospholipids

56

triglyceride is composed of

1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids

57

fatty acid is bonded to glycerol via _____ with a _____ rxn

carboxyl group, dehydration

58

primary role of fats is...

energy storage

59

saturated fats at room temp vs unsatur. fats at room temp

sat = solid, unsat = liquid

60

unsaturated fats prevent =

heart disease

61

trans fats are

hydrogenated (more solid) oils , not found in nature, bad for you

62

cis vs trans fat

cis has a kink trans doesn't

63

steriods structure, examples

four ring structure lipid, ex: hormones and cholesterol

64

steriods differ from one another by their..... cholesterol for example has.....

functional groups attached to carbon rings

cholesterol: polar hydroxyl group and isoprenoid chain attached to rings

65

head of phospholipid

head: phosphate and glycerol

66

amphipathic

both hydrohphilic (head) and hydrophobic (tail)

67

micelle has ___ outside and ___ facing inside

head, tail

68

factors of membrane permeability

- temperatrue
-cholesterol amount
-tail length
- # of double bonds
- # of proteins

69

Tonicity

is relative to amount of solute that can NOT cross the membrane in solvent

70

fluid mosaic model

proteins go through the mebrane and molecules pass through (not sandwich on top and bottom)

71

cell membrane composed of...

phos.lipid, glycoprotein, glycolipid, protein, cholesterol

72

integral, transmembrane and peripheral membrane proteins

integral and tans - go through membrane , peripheral - bind to outside or inside of the membrane

73

types of membrane proteins

channels(tunnels), carriers = passive

pumps = active

74

aquaporins

channel that allows water to easily move through membrane

75

gated channels do? used for?

proteins that open or close in response to a signal, carefully controlled ion flow

76

how does sodium - potasssium pump work?

atp attach on outside of pump (phosphorylation) , lets 3 sodium in, pump changes shape, 3 sodium leave and 2 potassium in, pump change shape, potassium goes in and phosphate detaches (dephosphorylation) from the outside of the pump (and repeat)

77

membrane has ___ charged outside and _____ charged inside, when charge is reversed ______

positive, negative, gated channels open to outside and allows only k+ to pass

78

gated channels are found more commonly in _____ cells ,ex_______

nerve, sodium potassium pump

79

carrier proteins work by _________ and used to transport ______

facilitated diffusion through a protein via protein shape change, large molecules like glucose

80

sodium potassium pump primary function?

keeping negative inside and positive outside

81

sodium gets in cell through? and can bring?

channel proteins, can bring glucose via piggyback if concent. gradient permits it

82

secondary active transport

uses cotransporter to move ex. sodium into cell (with concentr. gradient) and that releases energy (from electrochemical gradient) to move glucose into cell (piggyback with sodium)

83

benefits of organelles

-efficiency
- prevent side reactions

84

pro and euk cell main differences

size
nucleus
more organized via organelles

85

_____ synthesized in nucleus

mRNA(carries message to synthesize ribosomes) and rRNA(binds proteins to for ribosome)

86

protein needed in nucleus...
ex:

made in cytoplasm and transported into nucleus

-copy dna
-protein for ribosome
-synthesize rna