Exam 2 - Practice Problems Flashcards Preview

Immunology BLD 434 > Exam 2 - Practice Problems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 - Practice Problems Deck (81):
1

T-independent antibody responses primarily produce ____ isotype of antibody
a. IgA
b. IgG
c. IgM
d. IgD
e. IgE

c. IgM

2

These molecules allow for firm attachment of lymphocytes to inflamed blood vessel endothelium, allowing the lymphocytes to exit blood vessels and enter tissues
a. Integrins
b. Chemokines
c. Selectins

a. Integrins

3

Igα and Igβ are expressed in:
a. Pre-B cells
b. Immature B cells
c. Naive mature B cells
d. All of the above

d. All of the above

4

Which FcR plays a direct role in ADCC?
a. FcαTI
b. Fc𝜺RI
c. Fc𝛄RI
d. Fc𝛄RIII

d. Fc𝛄RIII

5

In the thymus, macrophages are found:
a. in the medulla only
b. in the cortex only
c. in both the medulla and cortex

c. in both the medulla and cortex

6

IFN-α and IFN-β assist anti-viral responses by:
a. down-regulating MHC class I expression
b. up-regulating MHC class I expression
c. causing apoptosis of NK cells

b. up-regulating MHC class I expression

7

Which of the following is not a characteristic of B-1 B lymphocytes?
a. High somatic hypermutation
b. Primarily produced in the fetus
c. Spontaneous IgM production
d. Ability to respond to carbohydrate antigens

a. High somatic hypermutation

8

Why does receptor editing occur?
a. To prevent a developing B cell from failing negative selection
b. To prevent a thymocyte from failing negative selection
c. To prevent a developing B cell from failing positive selection
d. To prevent a thymocyte from failing positive selection

a. To prevent a developing B cell from failing negative selection

9

How many classical MHC class I proteins do most individuals express that were inherited by their mother?
a. 3
b. 6
c. 12

a. 3

10

Which of the following cells does not play a role in cell-mediated immunity?
a. Tc cells
b. Th1 cells
c. Th2 cells

c. Th2 cells

11

Which of the following is an NK cell inhibitory ligand expressed during fetal development?
a. HLA-A
b. HLA-DM
c. HLA-E
d. HLA-G

c. HLA-E
d. HLA-G

12

Which antibody isotype is transported across blood vessel endothelial cells and delivered to tissues?
a. IgA
b. IgG
c. IgM

b. IgG

13

IL-4 is a “signature cytokine” secreted by:
a. Treg cells
b. Th1 cells
c. TH2 cells

c. TH2 cells

14

What cell-surface molecule on a Th cell is absolutely essential for driving T-dependent antibody responses?
a. CD28
b. CD40
c. CD40-L

c. CD40-L

15

Naive B lymphocytes need this to stay alive
a. IL-7
b. BAFF
c. LT

b. BAFF

16

If FDC were absent from secondary lymphoid tissues, what would be the ultimate result?
a. There would be very few B lymphocytes in circulation
b. B lymphocytes would be in normal number in circulation, but they would only produce IgM
c. B lymphocytes would be in normal number in circulation, would isotype switch, but would not produce memory B cells

a. There would be very few B lymphocytes in circulation

17

Where does a mature B lymphocyte receive periodic growth signals while recirculating around in the body?
a. Primary lymphoid follicle
b. Secondary lymphoid follicle
c. PALS area

a. Primary lymphoid follicle

18

pTα is part of the:
a. pre-BCR
b. mature BCR
c. pre-TCR
d. mature TCR

c. pre-TCR

19


This surface protein is present on both Th1 and Th2 cells and used to activate macrophages and B cells, respectively
a. MHC class II
b. CD40L
c. FasL

b. CD40L

20

What is the function of IL-5?
a. Cause B lymphocytes to isotype switch to IgE
b. Activate eosinophils
c. Cause production of more goblet cells to increase mucus secretion

b. Activate eosinophils

21

APRIL is a/an:
a. isotype switch factor for IgA
b. enzyme that initiates somatic hypermutation
c. cytokine production by B cells to keep FDC alive

a. isotype switch factor for IgA

22

What is the main function of a plasma cell?
a. Transport flora across mucosal epithelium to ALT
b. Export dimeric IgA into mucus
c. Secrete antibody

c. Secrete antibody (any isotype, but only one type per cell)

23

This process prevents autoimmune disease
a. Clonal selection
b. Positive selection
c. Negative selection

c. Negative selection

24

For T cells, central tolerance is achieved by _______, and peripheral tolerance is achieved by ______.
a. apoptosis; anergy
b. apoptosis, apoptosis
c. anergy, apoptosis
d. anergy, anergy

a. apoptosis; anergy

25

Which has a higher success rate in an individual developing lymphocyte?
a. Light chain rearrangement
b. Heavy chain rearrangement
c. Neither, they are equal

a. Light chain rearrangement

26

Which of the following proteins in the B cell co-receptor complex binds complement C3b?
a. CD19
b. CD21
c. CD81

b. CD21

27

Secretary component is a fragment of ____ produced by enzymatic cleavage.
a. IgA constant domain
b. J chain
c. poly-Ig receptor

c. poly-Ig receptor

28

A thymocyte possessing a TCR which has no affinity for (i.e. cannot bind) MHC in the thymus will:
a. fail positive selection and undergo apoptosis
b. fail negative selection and undergo apoptosis
c. pass both positive and negative selection and be released from the thymus

a. fail positive selection and undergo apoptosis

29

Functionally, IEL act most closely like a:
a. Treg
b. Tc cell
c. plasma cell

b. Tc cell

30

In the two-signal hypothesis, what is the second signal delivered by the APC? (i.e. this protein is present on the surface of the APC)
a. CTLA-4
b. B7
c. CD28

b. B7

31

A pre-T cell is the same as:
a. A single-positive T cell
b. A double-positive T cell
c. A double-negative T cell

b. A double-positive T cell

32

Granzymes are concentrated in:
a. mast cell, eosinophil, and basophil granules
b. macrophage granules
c. Tc lytic granules

c. Tc lytic granules

33

Which of the following cells remove apoptotic thymocytes in the thymus?
a. Dendritic cells
b. Macrophages
c. Medullary thymic epithelial cells

b. Macrophages

34

The surrogate light chain is expressed in:
a. lymphoid progenitor cells
b. pro-B cells
c. pre-B cells

c. pre-B cells

35

TGF-β is produced by:
a. Tc cells
b. Th1 cells
c. Treg cells

c. Treg cells

36

How does a primary lymphoid follicle differ from a secondary lymphoid follicle?

A primary has naive B cells, a secondary contains a germinal center with activated B cells

37

What are HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR?

Genes encoding classical MHC class II proteins

38

How do RBCs remove immune complexes from blood plasma?

CR1 binds C3b opsonized immune complexes and deliver them to macrophages of the liver and spleen

39

What cytokine is needed in abundance (large amounts) in order to activate naive CD8+ T cells to become Tc?

IL-2

40

What is the normal proportion of αβ T cells to 𝛄δ T cells produced after birth?

90:10 or 9:1
90% αβ T cells
10% 𝛄δ T cells

41

Explain the most probable reason why B cells do not undergo positive selection.

They can bind antigen directly and do not need it presented to them

42

Which of the following is most likely to stay in the secondary lymphoid tissue to carry out its function?
a. Th1
b. Th2
c. Tc

b. Th2

According to updated knowledge, none are correct; only TFH would be correct

43

What is the ligand for CTLA-4?
a. B7
b. CD28
c. CD40-L

a. B7

44

What is the usual antibody isotype secreted by B-1 B lymphocytes
a. IgA
b. IgG
c. IgM

c. IgM

45

IL-12 will promote the development of:
a. Treg
b. Th1
c. Th2

b. Th1

46

B lymphocytes undergo:
a. positive selection only
b. negative selection only
c. both positive and negative selection

b. negative selection only

47

What stage(s) of B lymphocyte development are the RAG proteins expressed?
a. pre-B cells only
b. pre-B and immature B cells
c. pre-B and pro-B cells

c. pre-B and pro-B cells

48

What two cell types participate in linked recognition?
a. APC and naive T cells
b. B lymphocytes and T helper lymphocytes
c. T helper lymphocytes and macrophages

b. B lymphocytes and T helper lymphocytes

49

B cells activated by soluble self-antigen in the bone marrow will undergo:
a. clonal anergy
b. clonal selection
c. clonal deletion

a. clonal anergy

50

Polyspecific antibody is generally associated with ___ isotype
a. IgA
b. IgG
c. IgM

c. IgM

51

What is the dominant signal which controls eventual phenotypic/functional subset choice of naive T lymphocyte following activation?
a. Costimulatory molecules present on the APC
b. Concentration of the antigen
c. Cytokines around the T cell
d. Affinity of the TCR for antigen

c. Cytokines around the T cell

52

What percent of developing B cells are successful in light chain gene rearrangement?
a. 33%
b. 50%
c. 66%
d. 85%

d. 85%

53

Of CD19, CD21, and CD81 (the components of the B cell co-receptor complex), which functions as a complement receptor?
a. CD19
b. CD21
c. CD81

b. CD21

54

What is the major function/role of activated CD8+ T lymphocytes?
a. T helper 1 cells
b. T helper 2 cells
c. Regulatory T cells
d. Cytotoxic T cells

d. Cytotoxic T cells

55

Which T cell is the major source of IL-5
a. Treg
b. Th1
c. Th2

c. Th2

56

Receptor editing is performed by B lymphocytes in an attempt to prevent ____ selection.
a. clonal
b. positive
c. negative

c. negative

57

FasL plays a major role in:
a. apoptosis of infected or damaged cells
b. activation of naive T lymphocytes
c. homeostasis of the B lymphocyte pool

a. apoptosis of infected or damaged cells

58

“Single-positive” thymocytes express either ___ or ____ on their surface
a. CD3 or CD4
b. CD3 or CD8
c. CD4 or CD8

c. CD4 or CD8

59

pTα is a:
a. surrogate TCRα chain of pre-T cells
b. component of the CD3 signaling complex for the preTCR and mature TCR
c. surrogate light chain of pre-B cells

a. surrogate TCRα chain of pre-T cells

60

Cyclosporin, FK506, and Rapamycin prevent T lymphocyte activation by interfering with ___ production and/or responses
a. IL-2
b. IL-4
c. IFN-𝛄
d. IL-10

a. IL-2

61

What cells are located in the mantle zone of a germinal center?
a. Unactivated (naive) B lymphocytes
b. Centrocytes
c. Centroblasts

a. Unactivated (naive) B lymphocytes

62

T-dependent and T-independent antibody responses both utilize somatic hypermutation.
a. True
b. False

b. False

63

Thymocyte positive selection occurs in the ____ of the thymus.
a. cortex
b. medulla

a. cortex

64

AIRE is necessary for:
a. positive selection
b. negative selection
c. homeostasis of naive B lymphocyte pool

b. negative selection

65

Treg plays a major role in:
a. central tolerance
b. peripheral tolerance

b. peripheral tolerance

66

BAFF is produced by:
a. B lymphocytes
b. dendritic cells
c. follicular dendritic cells

c. follicular dendritic cells

67

Which of the following is present in high concentrations on naive T lymphocytes, but relatively absent on effector lymphocytes?
a. CD2
b. VLA-4
c. L-selectin

c. L-selectin

68

Which T cell is the major source of IFN-𝛄?
a. Treg
b. Th1
c. Th2

b. Th1

69

Central tolerance of T lymphocytes is achieved by:
a. anergy induction
b. apoptosis induction
c. necrosis induction

b. apoptosis induction

70

T-independent antibody responses produce primarily ____ isotype of antibody
a. IgA
b. IgM
c. IgG
d. IgE

b. IgM

71

Humoral immunity is essentially the same as:
a. antibody immunity
b. cell-mediated immunity
c. innate immunity

a. antibody immunity

72

What percent of developing thymocytes become 𝛄δ T lymphocytes?
a. 10%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 90%

a. 10%

73

The “two-signal hypothesis” in immunology refers to:
a. activation of a B lymphocyte by a T helper cell
b. activation of a naive T lymphocyte by APC
c. somatic recombination occurring in thymocyte development

b. activation of a naive T lymphocyte by APC

74

What is the main function of macrophages within the thymus?
a. Phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes
b. APC to respond to infections
c. Positive selection of thymocytes

a. Phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes

75

Besides SCF, what other cytokine supports B lymphocyte development in the bone marrow?
a. IL-2
b. IL-4
c. IL-6
d. IL-7

d. IL-7

76

What transcription factor controls the Th2 cell phenotype?
a. GATA-3
b. FoxP3
c. T-bet

a. GATA-3

77

What protein on the surface of T helper cells (both Th1 and Th2) is used to activated macrophages and B lymphocytes?

CD40L

78

Where are germinal centers located within secondary lymphoid tissues, and what cell type is the most abundant in germinal centers?

B cell follicles, centroblasts

79

What other CD marker can be used in combination with CD5 to identify B-1 B lymphocytes?

CD19 or CD20 (or even CD21)

80

What two important functions do FDC perform for B lymphocytes?

1. Provide BAFF to keep naive B cells alive
2. Provide antigen immune complexes for affinity maturation (clonal selection) following somatic hypermutation

81

List the three main cells that accomplish cell-mediated immunity.

1. Tc
2. Th1
3. Macrophages