Exam 2 - Regions of the Vertebral Column (Atypical Cervical) Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy > Exam 2 - Regions of the Vertebral Column (Atypical Cervical) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 - Regions of the Vertebral Column (Atypical Cervical) Deck (58):
1

What muscle attaches to the anterior arch of C1?

longus colli

2

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C1?

Backward Upward Medial
BUM

3

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C1?

Backward Downward Medial
BDM

4

What muscles attach to the lateral mass of C1?

levator scaupula
splenius cervicis
rectus capitis anterior

5

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch to the skin in each gender?

males - about 50mm
females - about 37mm

6

What attaches to the posterior tubercle of the posterior arch of C1?

rectus capitis posterior minor muscles
ligamentum nuchae

7

What is the earliest age of development where ossification of the anterior free margin of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament was observed?

about 7 years old

8

What names are given to the opening formed by the ponticulus posticus?

arcuate foramen
retroarticular canal

9

Ponticulus posticus are observed in what ethnic populations?

all ethnic populations studied thus far

10

What is the general range of incidence of ponticulus posticus in the populations studied?

1-41%

11

What is the gender bias now associated with ponticuulus posticus?

female

12

What is observed on the undersurface of the posterior arch of C1?

"inferior vertebral notch"
attachment site of the posterior atlanto-axial ligament

13

What is the location of the zygaphophysis relative to the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial intervertebral foramina?

it forms part of the anterior boundary of the intervertebral foramen in both cases

14

What muscles attach to the transverse process of C1?

rectus capitis anterior
rectus capitis lateralis
middle scalene
levator scapula
splenius cervicis
obliquus capitis superior
obliquus capitis inferior
intertransversarii muscles

15

What suboccipital muscles are know to have fascial projections attaching to the spinal dura?

rectus capitis posterior minor
rectus capitis posterior major
obliquus capitis inferior

16

What are the connections between suboccipital muscles and the spinal dura called?

myodural bridges

17

What are the lateral bridges of atlas connected to?

lateral mass
transverse process of atlas

18

What opening is identified when a complete lateral bridge is formed?

retrotransverse foramen

19

What are the possible contents of the retrotransverse foramen?

the vertebral artery
brach from the suboccipital nerve
veins communicating with the venous sinuses of the neck

20

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is most numberous?

ponticulus posticus

21

Which of the ponticles (bridges) of atlas is only observed in humans?

lateral bridges

22

What What is observed in the transverse foramen of C1?

vertebral artery
vertebral venous plexus
postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

23

What is the gender variation for measurements of the transverse diameter of C1?

males - 78mm
females - 72mm

24

What is the distance from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of C1 to the skin for each gender?

a little over 30mm for both genders

25

How many synoivial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

5

26

What synovial joint surfaces are observed at C1?

two superior articular facets
two inferior articular facets
fovea dentis

27

What names are given to C2?

axis
epistropheus

28

How many joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

five

29

What joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?

facet for fovea dentis
groove for transverse atlantal ligament
two attachment sites for alar ligaments
attachment site for the apical dental ligament

30

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies above the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed posterior?

lordotic dens

31

What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior?

kyphotic dens

32

How many joints are formed by the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

five

33

What joint classifications are present at the inferior part of the vertebral body of C2?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphasis

34

how many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C2?

ten

35

What attaches to the lamina of C2?

obliquus capitis inferior muscle
posterior atlanto-axial ligament
ligamentum flavum

36

What is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2?

Backward Upward Lateral
BUL

37

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of C2?

Forward Lateral Down
FoLD

38

What muscle attaches to the articular processes of C2?

longissimus cervicis

39

What is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2?

male - 57mm
female - 50mm

40

What muscles attach to the transverse process at C2?

levator scapulae
middle scalene
splenius cervicis
longissimus cervics and intertransversarii

41

What is the characteristic appearance of the C2 spinous process in humans?

bifid

42

What is the location for palpation of the spinous process of C2?

in the midline, 2 in below the external occipital protuberance

43

What muscles attach to the spinous process of C2?

rectus capitis posterior major
obliquus capitis inferior
spinalis cervicis
semispinalis cervicis
multifidis
rotators
interspinalis muscles

44

What ligaments attach to the spinous process of C2?

ligamentum nuchae
interspinous ligaments

45

What names may be given to C7?

vertebra prominens (unique to C7)
vertebral prominence

46

What name is given only to C7?

vertebra prominens

47

In what percent of men and of women does C7 become the vertebral prominence?

men - 86%
women - 79%

48

What is the segment and gender bias for vertebrae other than C7 becoming vertebral prominence?

C6 is more common in females
T1 is more common in males

49

What joint surfaces are present at the inferior margin of the vertebral body of C7?

the anterior and posterior margins of the inferior epiphyseal rim
cancellous bone

50

How many joint surfaces are present at the vertebral body of C7?

eight

51

What joint classifications are observed at the vertebral body of C7?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar) joint

52

How many synoivial joint surfaces are observed at the vertebral body of C7?

2

53

What muscles attaches to the vertebral body of C7?

longus colli muscle

54

wHAT MUSCLES ATTACH TO THE transerse process of C7?

middle scalene
iliocostalis thoracis
longissimus cervicis
semispinalis capitis
rotators
intertransversarii
levator costarum brevis

55

What is the orientation of the superior articular facet of C7?

Backward Upward Medial
BUM

56

What is the orientation of the inferior articular facet of C7?

Forward Medial Downward
ForMeD

57

What muscles wil attach to the spinous process of C7?

trapezius
rhomboid minor
serratus posterior superior
splenius capitis
spinalis capitis
spinalis cervicis
semispinalis thoracis
multifidis
rotators
interspinalis

58

What muscles will attach to the articular process of C7?

longissimus cervicis
longissimus capitis
semispinalis cervicis
multifidis