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Flashcards in Exam 2 Review Deck (104):
1

What is the most common protein fiber in the body?

Collagenous

2

What is ground substance made of?

long polysaccharides or vary large carbs

3

What are the two types of dense FCT?

Loose and dense connective tissue

4

What are fibroblasts?

produce fibers and become fibrocytes

5

What are chondroblasts?

cells that secrete matrix of collagen fibers and ground substance

6

What are the three types of cartilage?

hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

7

Which of the three types of cartilage is the strongest?

hyaline

8

What is the most flexible type of cartilage?

elastic

9

What is the most elastic type of cartilage?

elastic

10

What are the two types of bone?

spongy and compact bone

11

What is spongy bone?

found on the interior of many bones

12

What is compact bone?

found on exterior of all bones

13

What is the function of the haversian canal?

transports blood vessels and nerves

14

What are lamellae?

rings around the haversian canal

15

What is an osteon?

haversian canal and surrounding lamellae

16

What is an osteocyte?

live bone cells

17

What is the periosteum?

FCT that surrounds whole bones

18

What are the 3 formed elements of blood?

erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets

19

What is the ground substance of blood?

plasma

20

What are the three parts of a neuron?

dendrites, stoma, and axon

21

What is a dendrite?

a neuron that carries impulses to the stoma

22

what is the stoma?

the cell body

23

what is the axon?

carries impulses away from the soma

24

What is neuroglia?

protect and assist neurons 50/1

25

What are neurons?

nerve cells that carry impulses

26

What are the three types of muscle cells?

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

27

What are skeletal muscle cells?

cells that attach to bones and are under voluntary control

28

What are cardiac muscle cells?

found only in the heart and are under involuntary control

29

What are smooth muscle cells?

forms walls of muscular organs and are under involuntary control

30

What are the three types of intercellular junctions?

tight, desmosomes, and gap junctions

31

What is a intercalated disc?

specialized junction that connects cells

32

What are the two types of glands?

exocrine glands and endocrine glands

33

What is an exocrine gland?

secretions that reach the surface of an organ

34

What is an endocrine gland?

secretions go to bloodstream

35

What are the three types of secreted material?

serous, mucous, cytogenic

36

What are the two methods of secretion?

merocrine and holocrine

37

What is a melocrine secretion?

are released through exocytosis

38

What is a holocrine secretion?

are released when cell ruptures

39

What the difference between secretion and excretion?

secretion is active excretion is passive

40

What are the three types of membranes?

cutaneous, synovial, and serous

41

What is hypertrophy?

tissue growth cell enlargement

42

What is hyperplasia?

tissue growth cell multiplication

43

What is atrophy?

shrinkage of tissue

44

what is necrosis?

premature death of tissue

45

What is apoptosis?

programmed cell death

46

What is regeneration?

replacement of dead and damaged cells

47

What is fibrosis?

replacement of damage tissue with scar tissue

48

What does thin skin contain?

epidermis, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles

49

What does thick skin contain?

sweat glands

50

What are the two layers of the skin?

epidermis and dermis

51

What is the hypodermis?

subcataneous layer of skin

52

What is the epidermis?

outer layer of skin

53

What is the dermis?

layer of connective underneath the epidermis

54

What are the five strata of the epidermis?

basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum

55

What is hemoglobin?

red pigment in blood cells

56

What is melanin?

dark pigment in stratum basale and spinosum

57

What is carotene?

yellow pigment from egg yolk

58

What are the 7 functions of the skin?

resistance to trauma, barrier to uv light, vitamin d synthesis, sensory receptors, thermo receptors through sweating, non verbal communcation

59

What is horripulation?

goosebumps

60

What is hair?

filament of keratinized cells growing from a follicle

61

What is arrector pilli?

bundle of smooth muscle fibers attached to root sheath

62

What are nails?

hard derivatives from the stratum corneum

63

What is the nail matrix?

area of growth

64

What are 3 functions of the hair?

thermoregulation
social functions
sensory functions

65

What are the three sections of the hair?

bulb, root, shaft

66

What are the three layers of the hair?

medulla, cortex, cuticle

67

What is the serous membrane?

internal membrane that lines body cavaties

68

What is the mucous membrane?

lines passageways that open to exterior

69

What are the seven functions of the skeletal system?

support, protection, movement, blood formation, electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, detoxification

70

What are the 4 bone shapes?

Long, short, flat, irregular, and wormian

71

What is the difference between spongy and compact bone?

spongy bone is found on the interior and compact bone is found on the exterior

72

What is the epiphyses?

enlarged end of a long bone

73

What is the diaphysis?

the shaft of a long bone

74

What are nutrient formina?

hole that allows blood vessels and nerves to go through

75

Difference between periosteum and endosteum?

endosteum is located in the epyphesis and periosteum is located in the diaphysis

76

What are preforating fibers?

bundles of fibers that pass from the outside in

77

Why are preforating fibers so important to bone growth?

allows nutrients to pass through

78

What are the 3 types of osteogenic cells?

osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts

79

What do osteoblasts do?

produce more bone cells

80

What are osteocytes?

osteoblasts trapped in matrix

81

What are osteoclasts?

break down bone cells

82

What is red marrow?

blood tissue

83

What is yellow marrow?

fatty tissue

84

What is intramembranous ossification?

creation of bone from membranous tissue

85

What are the 5 stages of ossification?

embryonic tissue forms sheet, osteoid tissue is made, calcium is deposited to form spongy bone, spongy bone become compact bone, osteoclasts reshape interior

86

What happens in fracture repair?

Forms a hematoma, blood clots, cells invade area, granulation tissue is formed, osteogenic cells become chondroblats to make fibrocartilage, lays down collagen, ostoblasts are formed and remodeled

87

What is metaphysis?

transitional zone between epiphysis and diaphysis

88

What are the 5 zones?

1. zone of reserve
2. zone of profileration
3. zone of hypertrophy
4. zone of calcification
5. zone of deposition

89

What is appositional growth?

adding more matrix to the surface

90

What is interstital growth?

adding more matrix internally

91

What is synarthrosis?

little or no movement

92

What is amphiarthroses?

slightly movable joint

93

What are diarthroses?

freely movable joint

94

What is a fibrous joint?

extends from matrix to matrix

95

What are cartilaginous joints?

bones held together by cartilage

96

What are synovial joints?

bones separated by a joint cavity filled with fluid

97

What is a suture?

plan shaped edge

98

What is a gomphoses?

hold teeth into jaw bone

99

What is synovial fluid?

similar to egg white. aids to cartilage and joints

100

What is a meniscus?

a pad of hyaline cartilage between bones

101

What is a bursa?

fibrous sac filled with fluid

102

What is a first class lever?

resistance between effort and resistance

103

What is a second class lever?

resistance between effort and falcrum

104

What is a third class lever?

effort is between resistance and fulcrum