Flashcards in Exam 2 Review Deck (104):
What is the most common protein fiber in the body?
What is ground substance made of?
long polysaccharides or vary large carbs
What are the two types of dense FCT?
Loose and dense connective tissue
What are fibroblasts?
produce fibers and become fibrocytes
What are chondroblasts?
cells that secrete matrix of collagen fibers and ground substance
What are the three types of cartilage?
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
Which of the three types of cartilage is the strongest?
What is the most flexible type of cartilage?
What is the most elastic type of cartilage?
What are the two types of bone?
spongy and compact bone
What is spongy bone?
found on the interior of many bones
What is compact bone?
found on exterior of all bones
What is the function of the haversian canal?
transports blood vessels and nerves
What are lamellae?
rings around the haversian canal
What is an osteon?
haversian canal and surrounding lamellae
What is an osteocyte?
live bone cells
What is the periosteum?
FCT that surrounds whole bones
What are the 3 formed elements of blood?
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
What is the ground substance of blood?
What are the three parts of a neuron?
dendrites, stoma, and axon
What is a dendrite?
a neuron that carries impulses to the stoma
what is the stoma?
the cell body
what is the axon?
carries impulses away from the soma
What is neuroglia?
protect and assist neurons 50/1
What are neurons?
nerve cells that carry impulses
What are the three types of muscle cells?
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
What are skeletal muscle cells?
cells that attach to bones and are under voluntary control
What are cardiac muscle cells?
found only in the heart and are under involuntary control
What are smooth muscle cells?
forms walls of muscular organs and are under involuntary control
What are the three types of intercellular junctions?
tight, desmosomes, and gap junctions
What is a intercalated disc?
specialized junction that connects cells
What are the two types of glands?
exocrine glands and endocrine glands
What is an exocrine gland?
secretions that reach the surface of an organ
What is an endocrine gland?
secretions go to bloodstream
What are the three types of secreted material?
serous, mucous, cytogenic
What are the two methods of secretion?
merocrine and holocrine
What is a melocrine secretion?
are released through exocytosis
What is a holocrine secretion?
are released when cell ruptures
What the difference between secretion and excretion?
secretion is active excretion is passive
What are the three types of membranes?
cutaneous, synovial, and serous
What is hypertrophy?
tissue growth cell enlargement
What is hyperplasia?
tissue growth cell multiplication
What is atrophy?
shrinkage of tissue
what is necrosis?
premature death of tissue
What is apoptosis?
programmed cell death
What is regeneration?
replacement of dead and damaged cells
What is fibrosis?
replacement of damage tissue with scar tissue
What does thin skin contain?
epidermis, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles
What does thick skin contain?
What are the two layers of the skin?
epidermis and dermis
What is the hypodermis?
subcataneous layer of skin
What is the epidermis?
outer layer of skin
What is the dermis?
layer of connective underneath the epidermis
What are the five strata of the epidermis?
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
What is hemoglobin?
red pigment in blood cells
What is melanin?
dark pigment in stratum basale and spinosum
What is carotene?
yellow pigment from egg yolk
What are the 7 functions of the skin?
resistance to trauma, barrier to uv light, vitamin d synthesis, sensory receptors, thermo receptors through sweating, non verbal communcation
What is horripulation?
What is hair?
filament of keratinized cells growing from a follicle
What is arrector pilli?
bundle of smooth muscle fibers attached to root sheath
What are nails?
hard derivatives from the stratum corneum
What is the nail matrix?
area of growth
What are 3 functions of the hair?
What are the three sections of the hair?
bulb, root, shaft
What are the three layers of the hair?
medulla, cortex, cuticle
What is the serous membrane?
internal membrane that lines body cavaties
What is the mucous membrane?
lines passageways that open to exterior
What are the seven functions of the skeletal system?
support, protection, movement, blood formation, electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, detoxification
What are the 4 bone shapes?
Long, short, flat, irregular, and wormian
What is the difference between spongy and compact bone?
spongy bone is found on the interior and compact bone is found on the exterior
What is the epiphyses?
enlarged end of a long bone
What is the diaphysis?
the shaft of a long bone
What are nutrient formina?
hole that allows blood vessels and nerves to go through
Difference between periosteum and endosteum?
endosteum is located in the epyphesis and periosteum is located in the diaphysis
What are preforating fibers?
bundles of fibers that pass from the outside in
Why are preforating fibers so important to bone growth?
allows nutrients to pass through
What are the 3 types of osteogenic cells?
osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
What do osteoblasts do?
produce more bone cells
What are osteocytes?
osteoblasts trapped in matrix
What are osteoclasts?
break down bone cells
What is red marrow?
What is yellow marrow?
What is intramembranous ossification?
creation of bone from membranous tissue
What are the 5 stages of ossification?
embryonic tissue forms sheet, osteoid tissue is made, calcium is deposited to form spongy bone, spongy bone become compact bone, osteoclasts reshape interior
What happens in fracture repair?
Forms a hematoma, blood clots, cells invade area, granulation tissue is formed, osteogenic cells become chondroblats to make fibrocartilage, lays down collagen, ostoblasts are formed and remodeled
What is metaphysis?
transitional zone between epiphysis and diaphysis
What are the 5 zones?
1. zone of reserve
2. zone of profileration
3. zone of hypertrophy
4. zone of calcification
5. zone of deposition
What is appositional growth?
adding more matrix to the surface
What is interstital growth?
adding more matrix internally
What is synarthrosis?
little or no movement
What is amphiarthroses?
slightly movable joint
What are diarthroses?
freely movable joint
What is a fibrous joint?
extends from matrix to matrix
What are cartilaginous joints?
bones held together by cartilage
What are synovial joints?
bones separated by a joint cavity filled with fluid
What is a suture?
plan shaped edge
What is a gomphoses?
hold teeth into jaw bone
What is synovial fluid?
similar to egg white. aids to cartilage and joints
What is a meniscus?
a pad of hyaline cartilage between bones
What is a bursa?
fibrous sac filled with fluid
What is a first class lever?
resistance between effort and resistance
What is a second class lever?
resistance between effort and falcrum