Exam 2: Transcription & Translation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2: Transcription & Translation Deck (29)
1

direction of DNA & RNA synthesis

nucleotides added to 3' end

2

direction of protein synthesis

new AAs added to c-terminal end

3

5' ----> 3' strand names

sense, coding, + strand

same sequence as mRNA

4

3' ---- 5' strand names

anti-sense, template, - strand

5

replication

DNA from DNA

6

transcription

RNA from DNA

7

translation

protein from RNA

8

transcription unit

region of DNA that can be transcribed into RNA

definite beginning and end (specific nucleotides)

begins in promotor region and ends at terminator

9

first product of transcription

exact copy of the transcription unit in RNA

in eukaryotes this is the "primary transcript" not mRNA

10

the primary transcript must undergo...

RNA processing in the nucleus to become mRNA

11

RNA polymerase

makes RNA form a DNA template

reads 3' to 5' creating a 5' to 3' sequence of RNA

12

transcript definition

piece of RNA copied from DNA

product of transcription

13

how many parts does mRNA have

3

5' UTR

ORF/CDS

3' UTS

14

UTR

untranslated region

5' called leader sequence

3' called trailer sequence

15

ORF/CDS

open reading frame

coding sequence

16

how many bases are in the ORF

multiple of 3 b/c there are 3 bases per AA code

17

cap

protects mRNA and helps attach to ribosome

18

tail

protects mRNA and helps it be exported from nucleus

long string of nucleotides of only Adenine

19

RNA processing

process of turning primary transcript into mRNA

capping, splicing, polyadenylation

happens in nucleus

20

spliceosomes

splice introns from 1º transcript

21

introns are....

regions of extra DNA in transcription units (anywhere)

copied into RNA then spliced out

have no codons

22

does mRNA have introns?

no

23

reason for introns

allow eukaryotes to code for more proteins by alternative splicing

24

ribosomes made of...

mostly RNA, only some protein

25

an mRNA is ready....

to be translated by ribosomes in the cytoplasm to make proteins

26

do prokaryotes add caps and tails to mRNA?

no

27

do prokaryotes have introns and exons?

no

28

post-transcriptional processing

capping, splicing, polyadenylation

all occurring in the nucleus before mRNA leaves

29

can eukaryotes have alternate promotors and terminators in the same gene?

yes, allows for more mRNA from same sequence just like introns