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The science that investigates human biological and cultural variation and evolution.

Anthropology

1

The process of successful interaction between a population and environment. Cultural or biological traits that offer an advantage in a given environment are adaptations.

Adaptation

2

Behavior that is shared, learned, and socially transmitted.

Culture

3

The transformation of species of organic life over time.

Evolution

4

Refers to the viewpoint that all aspects of existence are interrelated and important in understanding human variation and evolution.

Holistic

5

An explanation of observed facts. To be scientific, must be testable.

Hypothesis

6

A mechanism for evolutionary change favoring the survival and reproduction of some organisms over others because of their biological characteristics.

Natural Selection

7

The science of describing and classifying organisms.

Taxonomy

8

A set of hypotheses that have been tested repeatedly and that have not been rejected.

Theory

9

Long-term evolutionary change. Biological evolution over many generations and on the origin of higher taxonomic categories, such as species.

Macroevolution

10

Short-term evolutionary change. Focuses on changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next.

Microevolution

11

A long strand of DNA sequences.

Chromosome

12

The alternative form of a gene or DNA sequence that occurs at a given Locus. Some loci have only one allele, some have two, and some have many alternative forms. Alleles occur in pairs, one on each chromosome.

Allele

13

A DNA sequence that codes for a functional polypeptide or RNA product.

Gene

14

The specific location of a gene or DNA sequence on a chromosome.

Locus

15

The observable appearance of a given genotype in the organism. Determined by the relationship of the two alleles at a given locus, the number of loci, and often environmental influences as well.

Phenotype

16

The genetic endowment of an individual from the two alleles present at a given locus.

Genotype

17

Both alleles at a given locus are identical.

Homozygous

18

The two alleles at a given locus are different

Heterozygous

19

Both alleles affect the phenotype of a heterozygous genotype, and neither is dominant over the other.

Codominant

20

An allele that mask the effect of the other allele (which is recessive) in a heterozygous genotype.

Dominant Allele

21

A complex genetic trait affected by two or more loci.

Polygenic

22

A single allele that has multiple effects on an organism.

Pleiotropy

23

A mechanism for evolutionary change resulting from a random change in the genetic code; the ultimate source of all genetic variation. Must occur in sex cells to cause evolutionary change.

Mutation

24

The process of replication of chromosomes in body cells. Each cell produces two identical copies.

Mitosis

25

The creation of sex cells by replication of chromosomes followed by cell division. Each sex cell contains 50 percent of an individual's chromosomes (one from each pair).

Meiosis

26

A law stating that the segregation of any pair of chromosomes does not affect the probability of segregation for other pairs of chromosomes.

Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment

27

A law stating that sex cells contain one of each pair of alleles.

Mendel's Law of Segregation

28

A group of organisms that tend to choose mates from within the group.

Breeding Population

29

A mathematical statement whereby in the absence of nonrandom mating and evolutionary forces, genotype and allele frequencies will remain the same from one generation to the next.

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium