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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (91):
1

Glycolysis Equation

Glucose + 2NAD + 2ADP + 2Pi --> 2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2H + 2 ATP + 2H2O

2

Phase 1 of Glycolysis

"Energy investment phase." In 5 reactions, Glucose is broken down to 2, 3-Carbon molecules (G3P). Two ATP used.

3

Hexokinase

Enzyme that catalyzes
Glucose --> Glucose-6-Phosphate. Phosphorylates glucose using ATP

4

Phosphoglucose Isomerase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Glucose-6-Phosphate --> Fructose-6-Phosphate

5

Phosphofructokinase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Fructose-6-Phosphate --> Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate
Phosphorylates F6P using ATP

6

Aldolase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate --> Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate + Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate

7

Triose Phosphate Isomerase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate --> G3P

8

Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
G3P --> 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate
Produces NADH

9

Phosphoglycerate Kinase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
1,3BPG -->3-Phosphoglycerate
Produces ATP (phosphorylates ADP)

10

Phosphoglycerate Mutase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
3-Phosphoglycerate --> 2,Phosphosglycerate

11

Enolase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
2-PG --> Phosphoenolpyruvate

12

Pyruvate Kinase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Phosphoenolpyruvate --> Pyruvate
Produces ATP (phosphorylates ADP)

13

Fate of Pyruvate in eukaryotic aerobic conditions

Pyruvate --> Acetyl-CoA --> TCA cycle to generate ATP

14

Fate of Pyruvate in eukaryotic anaerobic conditions

Pyruvate --> Lactic Acid
-Uses NADH (produces NAD+ for glycolysis)
-Enzyme: Lactate dehydrogenase
-Excess Lactic Acid stored in liver and converted back to Pyruvate when aerobic conditions restored -->TCA cycle
AKA Lactic Acid fermentation

15

Fate of Pyruvate in prokaryotic anaerobic conditions

Pyruvate --> Ethanol
-Uses NADH (produces NAD+ for glycolysis)
-Enzyme: Alcohol dehydrogenase
-AKA fermentation

16

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Pyruvate --> Acetyl-CoA

17

Dehydrogenase

An enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring one of the substrate's H's to an electron acceptor (e.g. NAD+, FADH)

18

Citrate Synthase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Oxaloacetate + Acetyl-CoA --> Citrate

19

Aconitase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Citrate --> Isocitrate

20

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Isocitrate --> alpha-Ketoglutarate
-Produces NADH
-CO2 released

21

alpha-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
alpha-Ketoglutarate -->Succinyl-CoA
-Produces NADH
-CO2 released

22

Succinyl-CoA Synthetase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Succinyl-CoA --> Succinate
-Produces GTP

23

Succinate Dehydrogenase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Succinate --> Fumarate
-Produces FADH2
***Only integral membrane protein in TCA cycle
***Also part of multisubunit protein complex 2 in O.P.P.

24

Fumarase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Fumarase --> Malate

25

Malate Dehydrogenase

Enzyme that catalyzes:
Malate -->Oxaloacetate
-Produces NADH

26

Nucloeside Diphosphate Kinase

Converts GTP to ATP

27

Complex I of Electron Transport

NADH-Coenzyme Q Reductase
-AKA Flavoprotein 1
-Over 30 subunits
- UQ transfers H+ and e- to this from complex III
- Reduces NADH
-Moves 4H+ into intermembrane space

28

Complex II of Electron Transport

Succinate-Coenzyme Q Reductase
-AKA Flavoprotein 2
-4 subunits
-UQ goes between III and this
-Succinate Dehydrogenase is part of complex
-Produces FADH+
*Does NOT transfer protons

29

Complex III of Electron Transport

Coenzyme Q - Cytochrome C Reductase
-11 subunits
-UQ goes between this and I and this and II
-Cyt C goes between this and IV
-Moves 4H+ into intermembrane space

30

Complex IV of Electron Transport

Cytochrome C Oxidase
-13 subunits
-Cyt C goes between this and III
-Brings 2H+ into intermembrane space

31

DnaA protein

Replication initation factor in prokaryotes. Binds to origin of replication and separates the strands of the double helix

32

DnaB protein

Helicase in prokaryotes. Binds to separated DNA strands and moves along DNA, unwinding double helix as it moves

33

DNA Gyrase

Prokaryotic DNA replication protein. AKA DNA topoisomerase II. Relieves stress in the helical DNA structure cause by DNA unwinding. Works ahead of oriC.

34

Single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB)

Prokaryotic DNA replication protein that prevents the two unwound strands from coming back together.

35

DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme

Prokaryotic DNA replication protein that synthesizes new DNA strands.
-10 subunits
-"core" DNA polymerase III of 3 subunits
*Alpha subunit is the actual polymerase

36

Primase Enzyme

Enzyme that synthesizes an RNA primer needed for DNA replication

37

Tus

Prokaryotic Replication Termination protein that binds to termination region

38

DNA Polymerase I

Excises RNA primer, fills in gaps with DNA (prokaryotes) *DNA repair

39

DNA Ligase

Covalently links Okazaki fragments

40

Length of eukaryotic cell cycle

24 hours

41

S phase of eukaryotic cell cycle

Where DNA replication occurs. Lasts 8 hours

42

E. coli cell cycle

Less than 30 minutes

43

Nucleosome fiber

DNA wrapped around Histone proteins
10 nm diameter

44

Chromatin fiber

Helical coiling of nucleosome fiber
30 nm diameter

45

ORC (Origin Recognition Complex)

Eukaryotic protein complex that binds to replication orgin

46

Cdc6p

Eukaryotic replication activator protein

47

MCM proteins

Eukaryotic replication initiation factors

48

Cyclin CDK

Eukaryotic Kinase complex that triggers DNA replication by phosphorylating ORC, Cdc6p, and MCM proteins

49

Polymerase alpha

Functions in initiation of nuclear DNA replication in eukaryotes (also an RNA polymerase - synthesizes RNA primer)

50

Polymerase delta

Principal DNA polymerase in eukaryotic DNA replication

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Polymerase epsilon

Cooperates with DNA polymerase delta

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Polymerase beta

Function in repair of eukaryotic DNA repiar

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Polymerase gamma

DNA replicating enzyme of mitochondria

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EW cleavage produces

Patch recombinant heteroduplexes

55

NS cleavage produces

Splice recombinant heteroduplexes

56

RecBCD Enzyme Complex

Enzyme that initiates recombination (helicase activity)

57

RecA protein

Protein that forms a protein/DNA filament involved in strand invasion

58

RuvA, RuvB, RuvC Proteins

Proteins that separate/ resolve the recombination products

59

Chi (X) Sites

DNA sequences that have a high frequency of recombination

60

Mismatch Repair System

Mechanism of DNA Repair in which a newly synthesized DNA strand is scanned for mispaired bases. Incorrect bases are removed and replaced.

61

Conserved -35 sequence (prokaryotes)

TCTTGACAT

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Conserved -10 sequence (prokaryotes)

TATAAT

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RNA polymerase I

Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes major ribosomal RNA genes (IN NUCLEOLUS)

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RNA polymerase II

Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes protein-coding genes, and therefore mRNAs

65

RNA polymerase III

Eukaryotic RNA polymerase that transcribes tRNA genes, 5S rRNA genes, and genes of other small RNAs

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TATA box sequence

TATAAAA

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CAAT box sequence

GGCCAATCT

68

GC box sequence

GGGCGG

69

Octamer motif sequence

ATTTGCAT

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kappa B sequence

GGGACTTTCC

71

ATF sequence

GTGACGT

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GTF that binds to TATA box

TBP

73

GTF that binds to CAAT box

CTF/NF1

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GTF that binds to GC box

SP1

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GTF that binds to octamer motif

Oct-1; Oct-2

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GTF that binds to kappa B

NFkB; H2-TF1

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GTF that binds to ATF

ATF

78

Alternative Splicing

Removal of exons to generate transcripts that code for proteins with different amino acid sequences -- a way to generate multiple proteins from one gene

79

Constitutive exons

Exons that are present in all transcripts

80

Combinatorial exons

Exons that are present in some transcripts but not others

81

Acceptor stem

Part of tRNA that binds amino acid

82

Anticodon loop

Part of tRNA that binds to the mRNA codon

83

Sedimentation coefficient of prokaryotic ribosome

70S

84

Small subunit of prokaryotic ribosome

30S
16S rRNA
21 proteins

85

Large subunit of prokaryotic ribosome

50S
23S and 5S rRNA
31 proteins

86

Sedimentation coefficient of eukaryotic ribosome

80S

87

Small subunit of eukaryotic ribosome

40S
18S rRNA
33 proteins

88

Large subunit of eukaryotic ribosome

60S
28S, 5.8S, 5S rRNAs
49 proteins

89

Stop codons

UAA, UAG, UGA

90

Cytochrome C

Protein of about 100 amino acids. Important in electron transport

91

Coenzyme Q

A lipid-like organic molecule (can be integrated w/i membrane). Important in electron transport