Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (72):
Describe whole blood
4-6 L in the body with a pH of 7.35-7.45
What does whole blood consist of?
Plasma, WBC, RBC, and platelets
What's the buffy coat?
WBC's and platelets
How much of the blood is RBC's and buffy coat?
How much of the blood in plasma?
Decrease in RBC's
Increase in RBC's
Plasma vs. Serum
Plasma has clotting factors (fibrinogen), Serum does not
What the steps to hemostasis (forming a blood clot)?
1. Vascular spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Activation of clotting cascade
What two pathways exist for the clotting cascade?
Extrinsic and intrinsic
Activated by tissue factor; tissue thromboplastin
Activated by contact with the injured vessel; collagen and endothelium
Where the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways come together; converge of factor X
Name the 5 major leukocytes
Neutrophils (G), Lymphocytes (A), Monocytes (A), Eosinophil (G), and Basophil (G)
Describe a neutrophil
Stains pink and kind of blue, contains granules, and has a segmented nucleus
What's the function of a neutrophil?
Fight bacterial infections by diving into pus and killing itself
What is the percentage of neutrophils in the blood?
Describe a lymphocytes
Have a large nucleus that almost fills the entire cell and no granules
What's the function of a lymphocyte?
Fight viral infections as T and B cells through adaptive immunity
What is the percentage of lymphocytes in the blood?
Describe a monocyte
Stains blue, has no granules, and have a weird segmented nucleus
What's the function of a monocyte?
Immature macrophages that wander to different tissues to mature; names are based on the type of tissue they are located in
What is the percentage of monocytes in the blood?
Describe an eosinophil
Stains red, has granules, and has a segmented nucleus
What's the function of an eosinophil?
Targets antigen-antibody complexes to fight parasites and allergies in the body
What is the percentage of eosinophils in the blood?
Describe a basophil
Stains blue and contains granules
What's the function of a basophil?
Participates in inflammation by releasing heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine
What is the percentage of basophils in the blood?
Define mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Volume of average RBC, report in fl
Define mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
Amount of hemoglobin in an average RBC, report in pg
Define mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
Concentration of hemoglobin in an average RBC, reported in gm/dl
Measurement of the percentage of packed RBC's in a given volume
Immature RBC containing hemoglobin, RNA, and mitochondrial remnants
Production of RBC's
Formed element production from a pluripotent stem cell
An excessive or abnormal increase in the number of RBC's
Deficiency of red blood cells, or decrease in quality or quantity of hemoglobin
Define extramedullary hematopoiesis
Hematopoiesis outside bone marrow (spleen)
Define medullary hematopoiesis
The formation of blood cells within the bone marrow
What is relative polycythemia?
Too little plasma in the blood; dehydration
What is polycythemia vera?
Primary absolute polycythemia meaning you make too many RBC
What is secondary absolute polycythemia?
Adaption to hypoxic environments (moving to higher elevation)
What are the two types of microcytic-hypochromic anemia?
Iron deficiency and sideroblastic
What causes Iron deficiency anemia?
Diet or excessive bleeding
What causes sideroblastic anemia?
Drug or lead interference not allowing hemoglobin can't bind to it
What are the four types of normocytic-normochromic anemia?
Hemolytic, hemorrhagic, anemia of chronic disease (ACD), and aplastic anemia
What causes hemolytic anemia?
Autoimmune disease making cells fragile and susceptible to infection; sickle cell anemia
What causes hemorrhagic anemia?
Bleeding out either internal or external
What causes anemia of chronic disease?
Bacterial toxins; WBCs are taken over and the body doesn't make enough to fight off the toxins
What causes aplastic anemia?
Body is not making RBCs; neoplasms occur, viruses; compensation for chemotherapy
What are the two types of macrocytic-normochromic anemias?
Pernicious and folic acid anemia
What causes pernicious anemia?
The body can't absorb vitamin B12 due to loss of intrinsic factors; causes neuropathy
What causes folic acid anemia?
Diet, malnutrition, alcoholism; similar to pernicious anemia, but without neuropathy
Too little WBCs (aids)
Too many WBCs; can be good or bad (bad = >50,000)
Define acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML)
Rapid onset with a poor survival rate
Define chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML)
Gradual onset, usually occurs in adults, caused by the Philadelphia chromosome (crossover of 9 and 22)
Define acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
Rapid onset and usually occurs in children
Define chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
Gradual onset with a lengthy survival rate and usually occurs in elderly people
What is multiple myeloma?
Disease resulting in lesions in the bone due to increasing plasma cells taking over the bone marrow; increase in osteoclastic cells (break down). Plasma cells make bence jones proteins that come out in urine
Define Hodgkins lymphoma
Has reed-sternburg cells which are crazy giant cells; starts in one lymph node and might spread, but treatment is easier which increases survival
Define Non-Hodgkins lymphoma
Occurs in lots of lymph nodes and has a decreased survival rate
What is infectious mononucleosis?
Characterized by fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly; caused by EBV
What test would confirm infectious mononucleosis?
Mono spot test
What is beta-thalassemia?
Diminished amounts of hemoglobin beta chains; symptoms include: lethargy, increases HR, and increased BP
What will a peripheral blood smear look it with beta-thalassemis?
Cell sizes are varied
What does DIC stand for?
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
What triggers DIC?
Gram - bacteria activate intrinsic pathway which causes clotting all over your body; clots and hemorrhage and the same time. Gram + bacteria activate extrinsic pathway causes clotting all over
What causes DIC?
What test checks for intrinsic pathway activation?