Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology Lab > Exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (72):
1

Describe whole blood

4-6 L in the body with a pH of 7.35-7.45

2

What does whole blood consist of?

Plasma, WBC, RBC, and platelets

3

What's the buffy coat?

WBC's and platelets

4

How much of the blood is RBC's and buffy coat?

45%-55%

5

How much of the blood in plasma?

55%-65%

6

Define anemia

Decrease in RBC's

7

Define cythemia

Increase in RBC's

8

Plasma vs. Serum

Plasma has clotting factors (fibrinogen), Serum does not

9

What the steps to hemostasis (forming a blood clot)?

1. Vascular spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Activation of clotting cascade

10

What two pathways exist for the clotting cascade?

Extrinsic and intrinsic

11

Extrinsic pathway

Activated by tissue factor; tissue thromboplastin

12

Intrinsic pathway

Activated by contact with the injured vessel; collagen and endothelium

13

Common pathway

Where the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways come together; converge of factor X

14

Name the 5 major leukocytes

Neutrophils (G), Lymphocytes (A), Monocytes (A), Eosinophil (G), and Basophil (G)

15

Describe a neutrophil

Stains pink and kind of blue, contains granules, and has a segmented nucleus

16

What's the function of a neutrophil?

Fight bacterial infections by diving into pus and killing itself

17

What is the percentage of neutrophils in the blood?

60%-70%

18

Describe a lymphocytes

Have a large nucleus that almost fills the entire cell and no granules

19

What's the function of a lymphocyte?

Fight viral infections as T and B cells through adaptive immunity

20

What is the percentage of lymphocytes in the blood?

20%-30%

21

Describe a monocyte

Stains blue, has no granules, and have a weird segmented nucleus

22

What's the function of a monocyte?

Immature macrophages that wander to different tissues to mature; names are based on the type of tissue they are located in

23

What is the percentage of monocytes in the blood?

3%-8%

24

Describe an eosinophil

Stains red, has granules, and has a segmented nucleus

25

What's the function of an eosinophil?

Targets antigen-antibody complexes to fight parasites and allergies in the body

26

What is the percentage of eosinophils in the blood?

1%-4%

27

Describe a basophil

Stains blue and contains granules

28

What's the function of a basophil?

Participates in inflammation by releasing heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine

29

What is the percentage of basophils in the blood?

0%-1%

30

Define mean corpuscular volume (MCV)

Volume of average RBC, report in fl

31

Define mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)

Amount of hemoglobin in an average RBC, report in pg

32

Define mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

Concentration of hemoglobin in an average RBC, reported in gm/dl

33

Define Hematocrit

Measurement of the percentage of packed RBC's in a given volume

34

Define reticulocyte

Immature RBC containing hemoglobin, RNA, and mitochondrial remnants

35

Define erythropoiesis

Production of RBC's

36

Define hematopoiesis

Formed element production from a pluripotent stem cell

37

Define polycythemia

An excessive or abnormal increase in the number of RBC's

38

Define anemia

Deficiency of red blood cells, or decrease in quality or quantity of hemoglobin

39

Define extramedullary hematopoiesis

Hematopoiesis outside bone marrow (spleen)

40

Define medullary hematopoiesis

The formation of blood cells within the bone marrow

41

What is relative polycythemia?

Too little plasma in the blood; dehydration

42

What is polycythemia vera?

Primary absolute polycythemia meaning you make too many RBC

43

What is secondary absolute polycythemia?

Adaption to hypoxic environments (moving to higher elevation)

44

What are the two types of microcytic-hypochromic anemia?

Iron deficiency and sideroblastic

45

What causes Iron deficiency anemia?

Diet or excessive bleeding

46

What causes sideroblastic anemia?

Drug or lead interference not allowing hemoglobin can't bind to it

47

What are the four types of normocytic-normochromic anemia?

Hemolytic, hemorrhagic, anemia of chronic disease (ACD), and aplastic anemia

48

What causes hemolytic anemia?

Autoimmune disease making cells fragile and susceptible to infection; sickle cell anemia

49

What causes hemorrhagic anemia?

Bleeding out either internal or external

50

What causes anemia of chronic disease?

Bacterial toxins; WBCs are taken over and the body doesn't make enough to fight off the toxins

51

What causes aplastic anemia?

Body is not making RBCs; neoplasms occur, viruses; compensation for chemotherapy

52

What are the two types of macrocytic-normochromic anemias?

Pernicious and folic acid anemia

53

What causes pernicious anemia?

The body can't absorb vitamin B12 due to loss of intrinsic factors; causes neuropathy

54

What causes folic acid anemia?

Diet, malnutrition, alcoholism; similar to pernicious anemia, but without neuropathy

55

Define leukopenia

Too little WBCs (aids)

56

Define leukocytois

Too many WBCs; can be good or bad (bad = >50,000)

57

Define acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML)

Rapid onset with a poor survival rate

58

Define chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML)

Gradual onset, usually occurs in adults, caused by the Philadelphia chromosome (crossover of 9 and 22)

59

Define acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

Rapid onset and usually occurs in children

60

Define chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

Gradual onset with a lengthy survival rate and usually occurs in elderly people

61

What is multiple myeloma?

Disease resulting in lesions in the bone due to increasing plasma cells taking over the bone marrow; increase in osteoclastic cells (break down). Plasma cells make bence jones proteins that come out in urine

62

Define Hodgkins lymphoma

Has reed-sternburg cells which are crazy giant cells; starts in one lymph node and might spread, but treatment is easier which increases survival

63

Define Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

Occurs in lots of lymph nodes and has a decreased survival rate

64

What is infectious mononucleosis?

Characterized by fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly; caused by EBV

65

What test would confirm infectious mononucleosis?

Mono spot test

66

What is beta-thalassemia?

Diminished amounts of hemoglobin beta chains; symptoms include: lethargy, increases HR, and increased BP

67

What will a peripheral blood smear look it with beta-thalassemis?

Cell sizes are varied

68

What does DIC stand for?

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

69

What triggers DIC?

Gram - bacteria activate intrinsic pathway which causes clotting all over your body; clots and hemorrhage and the same time. Gram + bacteria activate extrinsic pathway causes clotting all over

70

What causes DIC?

Snake venom

71

What test checks for intrinsic pathway activation?

APTT

72

What test checks for extrinsic pathway activation?

PT/INR