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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (59):
1

Primary deviance

Initial act of rule breaking. Ex: smoking weed one time

2

Secondary deviance

Someone has been labeled as deviant, accepts that identity, and continues the deviant behavior. Ex: smoking weed a bunch of times

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Tertiary deviance

Person has been labeled as deviant and now seeks to normalize the behavior by labeling it as OK. Ex: being an activist to legalize marijuana

4

Deviance

Any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs

5

Durkheim's deviance beliefs

Rooted in societal factors such as rapid social change and lack of social integration among people. Deviance is natural and inevitable.

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What do functionalists believe deviance does

Clarifies rules: by punishing deviant behaviors society reaffirms its commitment to the rules and clarifies their meaning
United a group: when the behavior is seen as a threat to a group they come together in opposition to the behavior
Promotes social change: deviants may violate the norms to get them changed. Ex: bus boycotts

7

Getting a nose ring or a tattoo

Diversion

8

Social bond theory

Based off of how locked in you are with your community. The more you are, the less likely you are to be deviant. Ex: kid wants to do well for parents and doesn't want to let them down

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Attachment (social bond)

Kid feels obligation to do well for their parents

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Commitment (social bond)

Having a stake in society. If we have something to lose we won't screw up. Invest too much time and energy to throw it away

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Involvement (social bond)

If we stay busy w legitimate reasons we won't have time to deviate

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Belief (social bond)

Sense of allegiance to values and morals

13

Strain theory

When we have goals but don't have what we need to achieve them it causes a strain & results in deviance. Merton. Ex: goal is material things and money, what you need to achieve it is a good education and a job.

14

Conformism

Agreeing with the goals and the means

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Innovation

Agreeing with the goal but not the means. Ex: drug dealer wants to be wealthy but does it in a deviant way

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Ritualism

No longer caring about goals but still doing what you need to achieve them. Ex: bank teller just does what they need to and goes through the motions

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Retreatism

Does not care about goals or means. Giving up

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Rebellion

Changing the goals and the means

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Illegitimate opportunity structure theory

A lot like strain theory, in order for deviance to occur people have to have access to the things that allow them to wrongly achieve the goals they desire

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Conflict crimes

Crimes not everyone agrees on. Ex: smoking weed

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Consensus crimes

Crimes everyone can agree are punishable. Ex: murder

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Conflict theory

People who are poor and have low income are more likely to be seen as criminals

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Differential association theory

People you hang out with matter. If they're deviant you probably will be too and vice versa

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Discreditable stigma

Not obvious. Not perceived by others.

25

Discredited stigma

Obvious to other people

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Labeling theory

Deviance is socially constructed and certain people are designated as deviants and they come to accept this label. Primary secondary and tertiary.

27

White collar crimes

Crimes made by individuals. Done for personal gain. Nothing for their company only for themselves. Harder to catch than street crimes. Ex: embezzlement

28

Corporate crimes

Crimes made by entire company. Profit motive

29

What kinda of victims do corporations choose?

Weak victims. Choose crimes that involve least detection, least identification, and greatest profit

30

Corporate sociopathy

Corporations have no morals

31

From Clinard and Yeager's study what percentage of the top 100 corporations have been charged multiple times?

42%

32

World Health Organization's percentage of diseases that are waterborne

75%

33

Halliburton and KBR

Purposely exposed US soldiers to toxic materials in Iraq. Called it the new desert storm disease. Put toxic materials in local water plant that soldiers were working at.

34

Defense contractor pay vs army private and general pays

Defense industry CEO's were paid 44 times more than generals and 308 times more than privates

35

Emelle Alabama

World's largest toxic waste dump. "Cadillac of waste dumps"

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Percent of hazardous waste disposed of unsafely

90%

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New trend in environmental crime

Labs falsify their pollution test results to achieve EPA standards

38

How much does it cost to dump a ton of waste in the US? In a developing country?

$5000 in US. $3.00 in developing countries

39

Where are most toxic dumps?

Communities with high percentages of minorities and poor people. Also a lot in the south: Louisiana Mississippi Texas Alabama and North Carolina

40

3 forms of toxic terror

1. Sale of dangerous chemicals to under developed and developing nations
2. Exports of hazardous waste
3. Construction of polluting factories

41

External restraint theory

Suicide and homicide are two sides of aggression. Intense frustration and weak external restraints results in suicide. Intense frustration and strong external restraints results in murder

42

Factors that mediate external restraints

Socialization via physical punishment results in outward aggression(murder). Socialization via psychological punishment results in inward aggression(suicide)

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Who is likely to murder?

Young men. Uneducated and poor people. Family members and friends

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Where are murders likely to take place?

In south rural areas. More interaction with intimates and that's who kills

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What is the exception to murders being in rural areas and why?

Large cities just because of the proximity

46

What weapon are people likely to murder with?

Guns. 5 times more successful than knives

47

Does Arkansas compensate for wrongful conviction?

No

48

What accounts for most wrongful convictions?

Eyewitness misidentification

49

FBI uniform crime report

Official data on crime in the US

50

USA prisons vs other countries

We have way more people and kill more people than any other country

51

Disintegrative shaming

Labels offenders and forbids them from local community. Can result in violence

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Reintegrative shaming

Focuses on helping the offender learn with support from community to help them change

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Violent crime decrease between 2001-2010

Between 6-9%

54

Street crime

Happens publicly. Bad, but there's worse crimes out there. Ex: drug dealing

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Property crime

The taking or destruction of others property. Burglary, theft, arson

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For profit prison

Individuals are physically confined by a third party that is contracted by a government agency

57

War on drugs

74% of drug users are white, but only make up 10% of drug offenses locked up. 14% of drug users are black, but make up 74% of those locked up for drug offense. Latinos are 10% of drug users but are 15% locked up

58

Institutional racism

Police and other authoritative figures being mostly placed in areas where minorities live. Leads to them being the main ones locked up

59

Julie debates stealing something from the mall but decides not to. This is an example of what?

Her social bond to society