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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (140):
1

functions of the respiratory system

1. Exchange of Oxygen
2. Elimination of carbon dioxide
3. regulate the bloods hydrogen ion concentration
4. form speech sounds

2

diffusion

random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to lower concentration

3

conducting zone

Trachea
Bronchial Tree
Bronchioles

4

respiratory zone

*gas exchange occurs
respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveolus

5

Macrophages

protecting (security system)

6

lungs surface area

30-50 times larger than the persons body surface

7

muscles that help during expiration

Rectus Abdominus
Internal Oblique
Internal and External intercostals
External abdominal oblique

8

muscles of inspiration

external internal intercostals
pectoralis minor
scalene muscles
sternocleidomastoids
diaphragm

9

internal intercostals help

pull ribs in during exercise

10

Internal and external oblique

push diaphragm up into position

11

airflow depends on

pressure difference between two ends of airways & resistance of airways
P1-P2/Resistance

12

Airway resistance depends on diameter

asthma and exercise-induced asthma
chronic obstructive lung disease

13

exercise and chronic obstructive lung disease

More airway resistance because of airway narrowing and less expiratory airflow

14

COPD includes two lung diseases

Chronic bronchitis (excessive mucus blocks airways)
Emphysema (airway collapse and increased resistance)

15

Pulmonary ventilation

The amount of air moved in or out of the lungs per minute

16

Tidal volume

amount of air moved per breath

17

Breathing frequency

number of breaths per minute

18

alveolar ventilation

volume of air that reaches the respiratory zone

19

dead space ventilation

volume of air remaining in conducting airways

20

vital capacity

maximal volume of air that can be expired after maximal inspiration

21

forced expiratory volume

volume of air expired in 1 second during maximal expiration

22

Daltons law

the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the pressure that each gas would exert independently

23

barometric pressure

=PO2+PCO+PN2

24

conducting zone

to heat and humidify air

25

respiratory zone

gas exchange

26

Henrys law

amount of gas dissolved in a liquid is dependent on the temperature of the fluid, partial pressure of the gas, and the solubility of the gas

27

Ficks law of diffusion

rate of diffusion of a gas is dependent on pressure gradient, area for diffusion, thickness of the membrane, diffusion coefficient of the gas

28

pulmonary gas exchange*********

draw pictures of #26 big slide**********

29

Systemic and pulmonary blood flow

at rest, most of the blood flow is to the base of the lung, during exercise, more blood flow to Apex.

30

ventilation/perfusion ratio

indicates matching of blood flow to ventilation
-Ideal: 1.0
-but 0.5 meets gas exchange demand

31

transport of oxygen in blood

0.3ml/100ml dissolved in blood
90% directly bound to hemoglobin

32

deoxyhemoglobin

a molecule has less than 4 oxygen

33

oxyhemoglobin

4 oxygen molecules attached

34

oxygen carrying capacity

each gram of hemoglobin can carry 1.34ml of oxygen

35

differences in men and women

1. androgens signal body to produce hemoglobin and because men have more testosterone they naturally produce hemoglobin
2. blood loss due to menstrual cycle

36

CaO2

arterial oxygen concept

37

Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve 2 key parts

high pressure the sigmoidal curve is flat
low pressure the sigmoidal curve is steeply decreasing

38

blood ph ____________during heavy exercise

declines (becomes more acidic)

39

True or False
If body temperature goes up it will decrease affinity

True

40

True or false ???increase in Ph blood is more basic so we hang on to oxygen

True

41

Bohr effect

get oxygen off of hemoglobin easier

42

True or False?
Increased blood temperature results in a weaker hemoglobin-oxygen bond?

True

43

myoglobin

shuttles oxygen from the cell membrane to the mitochondria

44

Myoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than hemoglobin

even at low PO2 and allows myglobin to store oxygen (oxygen reserve for muscle)

45

Carbon dioxide trasnport in blood

1. dissolves in plasma(10%)
2. bound to hemoglobin (20%)
3. Bicarbonate (70%)

46

Convert CO2 to HCO3 (bicarbonate)

at the muscle

47

Bicarbonate HCO3 converts to CO2

at the lungs

48

Acid base balance

pulmonary ventilation removes Hydrogen (H+) from the blood by the HCO3 (bicarbonate) reaction

49

increased ventilation results in

Carbon dioxide exhalation (ph increases) more basic

50

decreased ventilation results in

buildup of Carbon dioxide (ph decreases) more acidic

51

control of ventilation

system works to maintain arterial PO2 and PCO2
interation between nueural and humoral (endocrine) factors

52

Respiratory control center

Rythmicity center
Apneustic & pneumotaxic areas (responsible for depth of breath)

53

inspiration comes from the ______side of the medulla oblongota

Dorsal

54

expiration comes from the ______side of the medulla oblongota

ventral

55

Tidal volume is under the control of the______

Pons

56

Acid-base balance

pulmonary ventilation removes hydrogen from the blood by the bicarbonate reaction

57

as we go up in altitude

barometric pressure goes down

58

as PCO2 increases

Ph decreases

59

ventilation increases as elevation goes up because of___________?

lower PO2

60

ventilatory control during exercise

submaximal exercise

61

submaximal exercise

linear increase due to
-central command
-humoral chemoreceptors
-neural feedback

62

maximal exercise

exponential rise in ventilation above Tvent

63

effect of training on ventilation

ventilation is lower @ the same work rate following training
-might be due to lower blood lactic acid levels
-results in less feedback to stimulate breathing

64

at rest tidal volume doesn't change

after chronic training

65

atmospheric pressure

measure of the weight of a column of air directly over that spot

66

partial pressure

individual pressure of the gases in air

67

Hypoxia

Lower PO2

68

Normoxia

PO2 under sea level conditons

69

Hyperoxia

a condition where the inspired PO2 is greater than that at sea level

70

Sea level PaO2 =
10,000 feet PaO2=
Mt. Everest PaO2=

100mmhg
53mmhg
30mmhg

71

symptoms @
5,000 ft
10,000 ft
13,000 ft
20,000 ft
25,000 ft

lightheadedness, headache
insomnia, nausea, vomiting, pulmonary discomfort
Dyspnea, anorexia
lethargy, general weakness
potential for collapse/loss of consciousness

72

how is heart rate is affected at high altitude

Submax HR higher at any given work load
maximal HR may be lowered at very high altitudes

73

what happens to ventilation at altitude

increase in minute ventilation

74

Live high train low benefits

red blood cell production increase in hematocrit

75

The challenge you have at high altitude is....

exercise intensity suffers

76

True or false in order to gain the most benefits from altitude training, you should live at 8,000 elevation and train below 4,000

True

77

if you're able to desaturate at a high exercise intensity

You're able to use more from circulation Oxygen

78

humans are hemotherms

they maintain constant body core temperature
heat loss must match heat gain

79

What is normal core temperature?

37 Degrees Celsius

80

if core temperature gets to 45 degrees Celsius

IT may destroy proteins and enzymes and almost certainly will lead to death

81

if core temperature gets below 34 degrees Celsius

it mat cause slowed metabolism and arrhythmia's

82

Measuring body temperature (surface)

-Oral temperature
-Tympanic membrane (ear canal) -hypothalamus regulates temperature
-skin temperature (surface electrode)

83

Measuring body temperature (core)

Rectal temperature
Esophageal temperature (nose)
GI Radio Pill

84

Cryotherapy

Cooling core body temperature (throw em in an ice bath)

85

Endotherm

produces own body heat

86

ectotherm

heat from outside

87

heat production by the body (voluntary)

exercise (70-80% energy expenditure appears as heat)

88

heat production by the body (involuntary)

shivering (increases heat production by 5 times

89

non shivering thermogenesis

When released Thyroxine and catecholamines by increasing metabolism

90

mechanisms for heat loss

Radiation
conduction
convection
evaporaton

91

Radiation

heat given off by any molecular mass in the form of infrared rays (approx 60% of heat loss at rest is due to radiation)

92

conduction

transfer of heat from the body into the molecules of cooler objects in contact with its surface

93

convection

heat is transmitted to either air or water molecules in contact with body

94

evaporation

heat loss due to the evaporation of sweat or espiratory water (most critical for exercise)
each liter of sweat evaporated is 580kcal

95

True or false? evaporation is a process where heat from the body is transferred to water on the skins surface

True

96

what is it when sufficient heat is transferred to the water, it vaporizes and in doing so heat is removed from the body

Evaporation

97

Evaporation is dependent upon

temp and relative humidity
convection currents around the body
amount of skins surface exposed to the environment

98

muscles that that help expiration during exercise

Rectus abdominus
internal oblique

99

Bulk flow

movement of molecules along a passageway due to the pressure difference between the 2 ends of passageway

100

forced expiratory volume

volume of air expired in 1 second during maximal expiration

101

diffusion is greatest when surface area is _____ , tissue thickness is_____, and driving pressure is____

high, small, high

102

normal gas exchange requires a matching of ventilation to blood flow

normal gas exchange requires a matching of ventilation to blood flow

103

Blood Ph declines during heavy exercise

meaning it becomes more acidic?

104

why is being able to desaturate a huge benefit?

if the oxygen isn't in the blood its in the muscles

105

medulla oblongata controls from

Rhythmicity center

106

increased ventilation results in

carbon dioxide exhalation
Reduces PCO2 and H+ concentration (Ph increases)

107

decreased ventilation

results in build up of carbon dioxide
Increases PCO2 and H+ concentration (Ph decreases)

108

whats causing an increase in ventilation

maximal breathing rate increases

109

non shivering thermogenesis

Thyroxine and catecholamines

110

Thyroxine (T4)

in thyroid gland, released to maintain core body temp

111

heat removal from skin

rely on circulatory system to move blood far away from core

112

The hypothalamus:increased core temp

anterior hypothalamus

113

The hypothalamus:decreased core temp

posterior hypothalamus

114

Hyperthermia

1.increased blood flow
2. impulses go to hypothalamus
3. vasodilation occurs (more heat loss)
4. sweat glands become more active
5. body temp goes down

115

dehydration

1. decreased plasma volume
2. reduced skin blood flow for any given core temp
3. reduced stroke volume
4. increased near-compensatory HR
5. general deterioration in circulatory and thermoregulatory efficiency in exercise

116

heat acclimation

1. increased plasma volume
2. earlier onset of sweating
3. higher sweat rate
4.reduced sodium loss in sweat
5. reduced skin blood flow
6. increased heat shock proteins in tissues

117

Hypothermia

1. decreased blood/skin temp
2. impulses go to hypothalamus
3. vasoconstriction occurs
4. skeletal muscles are activated causing shivers
5. body temp increases

118

Dry clothing retards heat exchange more than wet clothing

YUP

119

decreased core temp

decreased skin blood flow
Piloerection
hormone release
(norepinephrine and thyroxine)

120

Overload

for adaptation to occur a tissue or organ system must work at a load greater than it normally encounters

121

reversibility

tissue or organ system physiological gains are lost when the load against which it works is reduced

122

individual differences

ll respond differently to given training stimulus

123

specificity

training effects derived from exercise performed re specific to the exercise performed and the muscle group used.

124

muscular strength

maximal weight a person can lift (slow)

125

muscular power

maximum force per unit of time

126

muscular endurance

repeat of contractions against load

127

factors influencing muscle mass

Physical activity
nutritional status
Genetics*
endocrine influence
nervous system
environmental factors

128

Principles of strength training

muscles must be exercise near peak tension for increases in strength

129

strength training should involve the same muscles as competition

movement pattern, speed of shortening

130

concurrent strength and endurance training

combined strength and endurance training may result in lower strength gains than strength training alone

131

strength and endurance should be performed on

alternate days for optimal gains

132

Neural adaptations vs hypertrophy

major contribution to early strength gain is an improvement in the ability to activate muscle effectively
(initial few weeks changes in nervous system)

133

neural adaptations that lead to strength increases

-greater efficiency in neural recruitment patterns
-increased motor neuron excitability
-increased CNS activation
-improved motor unit synchronization and increased firing rates
-Lowering of neural inhibitory reflexes
-inhibition of Golgi tendon organs

134

hypertrophy

muscular enlargement

135

hyperplasia

increase in number of muscle fibers

136

both slow and fast twitch fibers enlarge

biggest change in fast twitch

137

fiber type shift from type IIX to IIa

5-11% change following 20 wks training

138

men are 30 % stronger lower body and 50% stronger upper body

True

139

DOMS delayed onset muscle soreness

*Minute tears in muscle tissue or damage to the contractile components
*Osmotic pressure changes that produce fluid retention
*Muscle spasms
*Overstretching or tearing of portions of the muscles connective tissue
*acute inflammation
*alteration in the cells mechanism for Ca++ regulation
*combination of the above factors

140

steps leading to DOMS

1. structural damage to muscle fibers
2. membrane damage
3. calcium leaks out of he sarcoplasmic reticulum
4. protease activation results in breakdown of cellular proteins
5. inflammatory response
6. Edem (swelling) and Pain