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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (46):

What does neuropsychology mean?

Generally the study of individuals with:
-brain injuries
-from accidents, illness or medical intervention
-single subjects


What is Cognitive neuroscience?

The study of Cognitive functions of those with 'typical' brains


What is affective neuroscience?

Studying the neuromechanisms of emotion


What is the thing about the word neuroscience?

It is more alluring to novice people; they find it more interesting.
Experts don't change their minds


What is an EEG?
What does it do?

Measures event related potentials and five categories of brain activity.


What are the five brain wave categories and their speeds in cycles per second? What does each one mean?

Delta, sleep in children 3.5
Theta waves, children and young adults 4-7
Beta 13-40, awake and involved in cog processes
Gama over 40 higher cognition, abstract thought


What are the advantages of EEG?

Less expensive.
Not restrictive.

Have to attach electrodes
Poor spatial resolution
Can't pin-point
Noisy, have to do multiple


What is MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging.

A radio frequency pulse is turned on, causes protons to line up and a picture is taken.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of MRI?

Has no lasting effects
Provides information about the static structure
High detail of structural integrity
Don't need to be awake
Detecting lesions
Non invasive

Expensive-$250-400/hr, 100K a year to maintain
Small space
Powerful magnets (accidents)


What is fMRI?

What does it look at?

Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Ongoing activity in the brain


How does fMRI work?

It measures the hemodynamic response or BOLD response.
Oxygenated blood has more magnetic properties.


FMRI is displayed how?

Often paired with?

Measured in units of?

Different levels of activity defined by different colors

Behavior measures

It shows areas where changes in brain activity are taking place.



What are the advantages and disadvantages of fMRI?

Super detailed
Good spatial resolution in 3D
Seeing ongoing activity

Noisy, expensive
Poor temporal resolution
Must be still
Have to have ongoing tech support


What is dMRI?

Diffusion MRI


How does dMRI work?

Measures movement of water molecules. The more dense the brain, the slower the water flows.

Uses repeated RFP's

These patterns allow inferences of neuronal pathways.?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of dMRI?

Non invasive
Can get detailed maps of brain interconnections
Good spatial resolution

Has all the disadvantages of the other techniques and is more expensive.


ERP's best for ?

Discrete events need to do flanker tasks.

Have to rule out eye movements


What is NIRS?
How does it work?

Near infrared spectroscopy. Also known as fNIRS.

Based on shining a light through the skull and seeing how it is refracted.

Like the BOLD response, regions of the brain that are oxygenated diffuse light differently.


Who does this work best for and why?

Works best paired with?

Can only measure activations at the surface level in and adult because of the dense brain.

Paired with a behavior response to look at motor actions.


Advantages and disadvantages of NIRS?

Influenced by intervening tissues, don't know about long term effects of shining a laser through a brain.
Need a technician.


What is TMS?

How does it work?

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

Using a magnet on a focused area to depolarize neurons close to the magnet.
Can produce a pulsed magnetic field.


What is the transient effect?

It stimulates particular brain regions but neurons go back to normal pretty quickly.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of TMS?

Can measure activity and functions of specific brain regions
Good spatial and temporal resolution
Can simulate impact of lesions
Inexpensive-about the same as drug therapy

Only measures surface activity. Rare but some groups it causes seizures.


How likely is it that an abnormality is found?

How does the UW handle it?

About 15 percent of the population exhibits an abnormality.

Any magnetic data collected has to go through the medical school for a radiologist to review.


What are the four methods for studying change over time.

Cross sectional
Cross sequential


Features of each?

Longitudinal design-studying one or more individuals over time.

Cross sectional-two or more ages and measure at least once.

Cross sequential-cross section but then bring in new groups same age

Micro genetics-studies same people over short periods of time; many measurements


What are regions of interest? (ROI)

What does relaxation refer to?

Relaxation is the measure of the time it takes for protons to return to their original state following a RFP


T1 and T2 weighted images?

White matter, high fat content appear bright and the water filled are dark in the brain. Measure energy given off by protons as they return to prior state.

Excessive spin, tissue appears opposite T1.


What is MEG?

What is it used for?

What are adv/disadvantages of MEG?


Measures magnetic fields produced by electrical activity of the brain.

Good temporal, spatial resolution
Asses both structure and function

Not influenced by intervening tissue
Subject shouldn't move


What are CT scans and PET scans?

How are they used?

Adv/disadvantages of both?

Uses x-rays to assess brain structures. Good for detection of lesions/tumors/blood clots. Not high res; can't examine ongoing activity.

Trace amount of radioactive material are ingested. Positrons emit as material decays and this indicates brain activity. Good for diagnosis, subject can move.
Expensive, poor temporal res.


What are motion artifacts?

Data that is caused by the participants movement not a response to a stimulus.


Difference between development and maturation?

D-changes that occur over the first part of the life span. Positive, unidirectional, cumulative.
M-growth and other changes in the body and brain that are associated with underlying genetic info.


Change over time vs learning?

Temporal changes brought about by learning and experience.
L-tied to specific instructions or experiences over relatively short periods of time.


Animal Welfare-what are the three R's

Replacement-non animal alternatives wherever possible.

Reduction-use smallest # of animals necessary for valid scientific results

Refinement-choosing procedures that minimize pain and distress; enriched environment; lab technician training


Where is the line draws?

At sentience; the ability to perceive, feel, subjectively experience something.


Animal welfare and absolutists that prof. Bennett talked about?

Concerned about humane treatment of animals vs acceptable or non-acceptable.


Who regulates on UW campus?

US Dept. of Ag; Office of Lab animal welfare, FDA, Research Animal Resource Center


What kinds of animals are used?

95% are rodents such as mice, guinea pigs, rabbits.
Less than 1% all others


Here on UW campus, what percentage of animals in what categories are used?

70% rodents
24% fish
1.5% all other animals


Why use ANOVA versus multiple t-tests?

ANOVA is more sophisticated, can be used to compare more than 2 treatments; can combine different factors and mix different designs within one study.


Regression works and how it relates to correlation and partial correlation?

Correlation is calculated first. Plot your data.
A partial correlation is used to remove a factor you're not interested in. Correlation measures the degree and direction of linear relationship between 2 variables. Consistency

Then use regression to determine the impact of more than one IV on the DV. Used for nominal, ordinal data. Regression is prediction.


Interpret an interaction, a the value of p.

P is probability of obtaining a sample mean in the critical region is .05/.001/.01 percent. Reject the null with a p


Four solutions offered by article in NATURE?

Editors and reviewers should push researchers to support any generalizations with evidence.
Granting agencies, reviewers, editors should give researchers credit for comparing diverse and inconvenient subject pools.
Prioritize cross-cultural/disciplinary research.
Evaluate how their findings apply to other populations.


In general, cross sectional studies do not identify what?
And underestimate?

The underlying causes of differences.
Variability within an age group


Microgenetics has three key characteristics

1-a focus on a key transition in behavior
2-densely packed observations that follow the behavior (stable-behavior-stable)
3-focused analysis of the behavior


Determining the underlying causes of change depend on what many factors?

Age, maturation, learning, specific experiences and cohort effects.