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Flashcards in exam #3 Deck (64):

Emerging Adulthood

Phase of life defined by testing out different possibilities and developing self
Not a universal life stage; only exists for a minority of young people
Begins after high school and tapers off by late twenties


Challenges of emerging adulthood

Typically considered the most challenging and change-inducing stage of life

-Need to re-center life roles
-Focus on responsibility, supporting self, and making independent decisions about life
-Change to an unstructured, unpredictable path


Outcome of nest-leaving

Does leaving home produce better parent−child relationships?
Research says yes. Relationship improves due to adult-to-adult conversations, etc.
Does leaving home make people more adult?
Research says yes. However, the expected independence does not necessarily develop. Tends to be a Western society tradition. May be impacted by economic issues and culture.


Social clock examples

Shared age norms that act as guideposts denoting what behaviors are appropriate at particular ages; usually set by society
-On-time: Matches normal timetable
-Off-time: Is too early or too late of normal timetable


Marcia’s identity statuses

Identity Achievement
Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual.
Role Confusion
A situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is (also called identity diffusion).
Erikson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning or analysis
An adolescent’s choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identity-achievement decisions, with going to college a common example.


Career selection on college students

Pioneering research (Csikszentmihalyi and Schneider, 2000) indicates every teenager expects to go to college.
Most expect to have professional careers, regardless of gender or social class.
On the positive side, this ambition and high expectations can help teens avoid delinquent behaviors, depression, and dropping out of school.
On the negative side, many will not reach their ambitions due to barriers such as poverty, economic factors, etc.


How does college affect self-esteem

Self-esteem dips dramatically during first semester of college and rises over the next few years
Inflated academic abilities
Key predictor to successful transition to a career
Teen’s interest in work (being productive) vs. those only interested in playing (avoiding work)

Research suggest that personality changes the most in the person’s twenties.
Significant maturity develops, with more focus on weighing options and healthy decision making.
They see failures as life lessons, not inconsequential events.
Conscientiousness – a term developmentalists used to describe the maturing of the frontal lobe, which helps develop self-control



Total absorption in an activity


College completion rates

by mid-twenties, about 3 in 5 complete a four-year degree


How do emerging adults find love today

1 in 3 U.S. couples met on-line; more likely to be happier
Higher willingness to date outside ethnic group
One national U.S. survey found religious faith less important
Higher acceptance of same-sex relationships


Know phases of the stimulus value role theory

Stimulus phase
The initial mate-selection stage in which we make judgments about a potential partner based on external characteristics
Value-comparison phase
The second mate-selection phase in which we make judgments about a partner on the basis of similar values and interests
Role phase
The final mate-selection phase in which committed partners work out their future life together


Attachment style and self-fulfilling prophecy

Preoccupied/ambivalent insecure attachment
-Clingy, needy style of relating to loved ones
Avoidant/dismissive insecure attachment
-Disengaged style of relating to loved ones
Secure attachment
-Genuine intimacy that is ideal in love relationships


Deinstitutionalization of marriage

Women’s movement had significant impact in redefining marriage.
Focus on more equality in relationships and roles
Focus on personal choices affected divorce rate
Caused significant increase
More choices of living alone or cohabitating
Rise in single parents
Less stigma attached to having children before marriage.
“Shotgun” marriage a thing of the past.
Recent studies indicated that parents are less embarrassed with children outside of marriage.
However, this can be affected by culture.
Acceptance of divorce, cohabitation, and unmarried motherhood clearly varies around the globe.


U-shaped curve of marital satisfaction

The most common pathway of marital happiness in the west, in which satisfaction is highest at the honeymoon, declines during the child-rearing years, then rises after the children grow up.


Sternberg’s triangular theory of love

Passion (sexual arousal)
Intimacy (feelings of closeness)
Commitment (marriage or exclusive, lifelong cohabitating relationships)


Qualities of long-lasting marriage

Commitment, Sanctification, and Compassion


divorce outcomes

Production of emotional growth and feelings of self-sufficiency
Relief for some who were unhappy
Disengagement of fathers through lack of contact or not paying child support
Challenges with discipline or lack of connection to stepchildren


Current U.S. work trends

More career (and job) changes – Traditional stable care is not the norm. People move from job to job or change directions, which is referred to as boundary-less careers.
Flexible working hours, nonstandard working hours more common; technology has moved some work from office to home
More job insecurity (and unemployment) – Outsourcing, globalization, and cutbacks have caused problems for the U.S. workers. Longer working hours – the idea that American workers’ work ethic has suffered is false. Both women and men are putting more hours in per week at their jobs than their parents or grandparents.


Holland’s personality research on career selection

According to John Holland (1997), the closer we get to our ideal personality−career fit, the more satisfied and successful we will be at our jobs.

Holland developed a career inventory to identify a three-letter code based on six personality types.
Realistic, investigative, artistic, social, entrepreneurial, conventional


Family-work conflict

A situation in which people-typically parents-are torn between the demands of family and work.


Gender differences today in work

More women access education than men. Women outnumber men on college campuses by almost 10%.
Men’s jobs are more susceptible to economic downturns than women’s. Construction jobs vs. nursing
Other issues related to women’s views of career:
Women have more erratic, less continuous “careers.” They are more prone to move in and out of the workforce due to care-giving responsibilities.
Wives may see their work roles as secondary to a spouse. Women are found in stereotypically female careers such as day-care worker or secretary. (Also, they are less likely to advance to higher managerial rungs.)
The work world is separated into women’s and men’s jobs. Occupational segregation – classifying jobs as male or female.


Extrinsic rewards

work that is performed for external reinforcers, such as pay.


When is middle age

Midlife typically runs from forties to the fifties
Half of people in their sixties and early seventies consider themselves middle-aged
Midlife is characterized by diversity regarding lifestyles and perceptions


Big Five trait perspective on personality…know each trait and examples

Tendency toward mental health vs. psychological disturbance
Resilient, stable and well-adjusted vs. hostile and high-strung
Outgoing attitudes (warmth, gregariousness)
Social and friendly
Openness to experience
Tendency to be risk-takers, seeking out new experiences
Industrious worker
Hardworking, self-disciplined, reliable vs. erratic, irresponsible, forgetfulness
Tend to live longer
Kindness, empathy, ability to compromise
Pleasant, loving, easy to get along with vs. stubborn, hot-tempered, prone to fights



Focus on nurturing next generation and enriching the lives of others
If generativity is not achieved, stagnation occurs, having no sense of purpose in life


Qualities of highly generative people

Highly generative people rate their lives as much more fulfilling than non-generative people.
Life events such as grandparenting are positive.
Less generative people report worrying about getting older.
Highly generative people have a positive impact on their children.
Highly generative people report having positive childhoods.
In telling their life stories, highly generative people:
Describe a commitment script – childhood memories of feeling special and an enduring generative mission
Describe redemption sequences – “bad” events that turned out for the good


Grandparent functions

Grandparent problems
Thin line between spoiling versus interfering.
Criticizing parents may create risk of being cut off from visits
Divorce can impact access to grandchildren

Caregiving grandmothers
Have increased in recent decades
May assume full-time parenting role


Family watchdogs

A basic role of grandparents, which involves monitoring the younger family member's well-being and intervening to provide help in a crisis.



The age-related process, occurring at about age 50, in which ovulation and menstruation stop due to the decline of estrogen.


Explanations for aging demographic in U.S.

Baby boomers entering later life
Declining fertility


Ages of old age

Young-old (sixties and seventies)
Old-old (80 and older)


How long are people now living if they make it into their 60s

Another 20 years


Social security

Social Security
Developed by FDR in the Great Depression
Pay into while working; funds dispersed at retirement
Designed to keep people from being destitute, not to fund a comfortable life
One of the lowest stipends in developed nations
Social Security: Operates as a safety net
The only income source for most low-wage workers
Often not available at low-wage jobs

Pensions: Often employer-linked
Workers contribute portion of their paychecks; often matched by employer
Funds placed in tax-free account
At retirement, person either gets regular pay-outs or one lump sum


U.S. retirement versus Germany

Germany-First government-funded retirement program developed in nineteenth century
System designed to keep people financially comfortable
Government replaces ¾ of person’s working income for life
Stipend increases to standard of living, so people get more financially comfortable with age

U.S.-Social Security – government-funded program
Pension plans – savings accounts of employees
Model is based on personal initiative.


Real retirement reality in U.S

Expect longer working lives due to rising income inequality and the eroding loss in real wages
Single and female predicts later life poverty
Expect to consider working after retirement
1 in 9 feel very confident about comfortable retirement lifestyle
2 of 3 plan to work after age 65 or longer some because they love their job
Great Recession of 2008 impacted retirement
Many upper-middle class vulnerable to financial struggles


Work for older adults

Impact of wanting to work longer or to retire
Can be a positive decision
Tied to loving job
Often healthy and highly educated
Factors that many consider:
Enough money to live without working (top-ranking motivation)
Physical ability to keep working (more apt to occur among low-income workers—especially those in physically demanding jobs)
Age discrimination


How do widows cope

Family are often initially more important
New widowed friends may often be best long-term support


Major Neurocognitive disorder

Is general label for any illness that produces serious, progressive, usually irreversible cognitive decline

Chronic disease that involves total erosion of personhood

Typically, dementia is an illness in advanced old age…which is the #1 risk factor, not young-old

Can be seen in younger adults who experience brain injury or illnesses such as AIDS


Early symptoms of NCD

Forget semantic information − recalling core facts about their lives (name, address, etc.)
Impairment in executive functions – the ability to inhibit one’s actions
Thinking is affected – abstract thinking, decision making, impaired judgment
Language is compromised.


Advanced stage symptoms of NCD

Later in life – loss of all functions such as ability to speak or move
May become bedridden, unable to remember how to eat or swallow
May lead to infections or pneumonia, which can lead to death


Life expectancy for NCD

4 to 10 years


Characteristics of vascular dementia vs. Alzheimer’s disease

Vascular neurocognitive disorder (Vascular dementia)
Caused by multiple small strokes

Involves impairments in the vascular system (blood flow in body)

Blood flow that feeds brain
Neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease
Age-related dementia characterized by neural atrophy and abnormal by-products, such as senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles.

Neurons decay and wither away and are replaced by neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques

Genetically linked (Genetic marker (APOE-4))


How do vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease affect the brain

Major focus is on amyloid protein
Fatty substance that is the basic constituent of the senile plaques.
Cannot be dissolved
No cure and no proven effective treatment


APOE-4 marker

genetic marker


Most effective way to reduce risks of NCD

Healthy diet
Physical exercise
Mental exercise, such as brain-stimulation games


Caring for someone with Alzheimer’s

Improving the environment is key
Using external aids and making life predictable and safe
Use note cards to jog memory
Focus on safety
Lock and put buzzers on doors
Remove toxic substances and deactivate dangerous appliances

Providing caring and loving support
Rely on faith
Relish the time left


Continuing care retirement community

Continuing-care retirement
Residential complex that provides different levels of services
Independent apartments to nursing home care
Designed to provide person−environment fit
Allows person to not burden family members


Nursing homes are financed how

Primarily through medicaid


Quality of nursing homes

Nursing home system is often misunderstood and misrepresented

Myths include
Often viewed as “dumping ground”
Abuse is widespread
Residents are poorly care for until they die

Movement to change nursing home culture
Attentive to resident’s individual years

Nursing homes can vary dramatically
in quality.

Research shows 1 in 4 nursing homes
provide substandard care.


Difficulties faced by certified nursing assistants

Like child-care workers, these health-care providers have very low wages
Care that these caregivers provide is tedious and time-consuming (feeding residents, assisting to the bathroom).


Common ways to die

Death occurs without any warning.
Sudden, fatal, age-related event (heart attack, stroke)
People decline steadily as they approach death.
A fatal disease, possibly in the advanced stages
People have an erratic course; fatal disease takes years or decades with ups and downs.
Most common dying pattern
Typically helped by medical technology


Dying patients prefer to discuss, not discuss, or vary on whether or not they discuss their prognosis



What age typically reports no fear of death



Qualities in a “good death”

Minimize physical distress to be free as possible of debilitating pain

Maximize psychological security, and reduce fear and anxiety, thus feeling in control of death

Enhance relationships and be emotionally close to loved ones

Foster spirituality and have a sense of integrity and purpose in life


Bereavement-related disorder

Prolonged grief ( more than 6 months)


Typical bereavement reaction during the first months

Survivors absorbed in mourning; ruminating; may sense physical presence of loved one


A child is dying, what are things parents find comforting?

Discussing death with a child can help parent avoid any regrets
Sharing in the hands-on care during the final days can be rewarding
Feeling health-care providers are caring and supportive can help relieve some of the pain


Palliative care unit

Any strategy designed not to cure illness but to promote a dignified dying, which includes:
Educating health-care professionals on end-of-life care
Palliative care service


U.S. hospice programs

Focuses on providing palliative care to dying patients outside of hospitals and giving families the support needed to care for the terminally ill at home
Views death as a human event and takes it out of the hands of medicine
Typically involves multi-disciplinary teams that come into the person’s home to help family cope
Has recently mushroomed in U.S.


Advantages of U.S. hospice programs

Avoid unwanted life-prolonging machines
Spending final days with people most cared about
Spending final days in most preferred physical setting


Examples of advanced directives

Advance directives are written document spelling out instructions with regard to life-prolonging treatment if the person becomes irretrievably ill and cannot communicate his or her wishes

Four types
Living wills
Durable power of attorney for health care
Do Not Resuscitate Order (DNR)
Do Not Hospitalize Order (DNH)


What is passive euthanasia

: Withdrawing potentially life-saving interventions (e.g., feeding tubes)
Instructions typically designed in advance directives, therefore it is acceptable.


In what states is physician-assisted suicide legal

legal in six states, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, California, Montana, Colorado and Washington DC.


Age-based rationing of care

Defined as the idea that society should not use expensive life-sustaining technologies on people in their old-old years