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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (111):
1

Mutualism

Both Organisms benefit

1

Commensalism

One Organism Benefits/ One doesn't care

1

Parasitism

One Organism benefits/ One is harmed

1

 

Process of Disease

 

 

Incubation Phase, Prodromal Phase ( most contagious), Invasive Phase, Acme, Decline Phase, Convalescence

 

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2

Why decrease since 1900 of infectious disease?

Washing hands and sterile Technique

3

Why spike in 1917-1919

Swine Flu

4

Why has it increased since 1980?

Evolution of pathogens, Social change, Immigration, Not vaccinate, Globalization

5

Incidence

The number of new cases of a disease in a specific time period

6

Prevalence

Total # of ppl with infection

7

Mortality

The number of deaths caused by a specific disease as a propotion of the population

8

Morbidity

The number of disease cases as a proportion of the population

9

Common source outbreak

An epidemic arising from contact with contaminated substances; Short outbreak like food poisoning

10

Propagated Epidemic

Long outbreak, source unknow and hard to identify

11

Sporadic Disease

Random, some spikes and some not

12

Endemic Disease

A disease continually present in low numbers in a geographic area

13

Epidemic Disease

Spike in Prevalence

14

Pandemic

A worldwide epidemic

15

3 Major modes of transmission

Contact (direct contact, indirect contact-fomite, droplets), Vehicle (Waterborne, airborne, foodborne), Vector (Mechanical vs biological)

16

Nosocomial Infections

Occurs in Hospital, opportunistic pathogen attacking immunocompromised patience

17

Water Cycle

Water Storage in Ice and Snow, Water Storage in the Atmosphere, Evapotranspiration

18

Infection

Multiplication of a pathogen in a host's tissue

19

Infestation

The Presence of an arthropod on the body

20

Contamination

The presence of a microbe on inanimate objects

21

Resident Microbiota

Microbes always present in a host

22

Disease

A disturbance of normal body function

23

Virulence

The intensity of a disease produced by a pathogen

24

Transient Microbiota

Temporary members of the normal microbiota

25

Pathogenicity

A Pathogen's capacity to cause disease

26

Opportunists

Organisms that take advantage of a host's lowered resistance

27

Attenuation

Weakening of a pathogen's disease-producing ability

28

Streptococcus Pyogenes

Erythrogenic Toxin (causes Nectrotizing Faciitis)

29

Clostridium Botulinum

Botulism

30

Bacillus Anthracis

Anthrax Cytotoxin

31

Clostridium Perfringens

Gas Gangrene

32

E. Coli

Traveler's Diarrhea

33

Vibrio Cholerae

Cholera enterotoxin

34

Corynebacterium Diphtheriae

Diphtheria

35

Shigella Dysenteriae

Bacillary Dysentery

36

Staphylococcus Aureus

Scaled Skin Syndrome

37

Clostridium Tetani

Lockjaw

38

Prodromal Phase

Short period during which nonspecific mild symptoms appear

39

Incubation Period

Time between infection and appearance of signs and symptoms

40

Decline period

Symptoms begin to subside

41

Convalescence period

Body Repairs self

42

Illness Phase

Typical Signs and syptoms appear

43

Acme

Time when signs and symptoms reach their greatest intensity

44

Symbiosis

The living together of two forms of life

45

Host

An organism harboring another organism

46

Shaking Hands

Direct Contact

47

Fomites

Indirect Contact

48

Eating Utensils

Indirect contact

49

Bar of Soap

Indirect Contact

50

Kissing

Direct Contact

51

Why is water Cycle important

Because all living things need water

52

What are large carbon sources

respiration, decomposition, volcano, weathering

53

What are sinks?

Plants, rocks, animal, shells, carbonite

54

Nitrogen Fixing

Many legumes have root nodules that provide a home for symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia. This relationship is particularly common in nitrogen-limited conditions. The Rhizobia convert nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into ammonia, which is then used in the formation of amino acids and nucleotides .

55

Nitrifying

NitrificationåÊis the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.åÊ

56

Dentrifying

Bacteria that metabolise nitrogenous compounds using the enzyme nitrate reductase, turning nitrogen oxides back to nitrogen gas or nitrous oxide.

57

Why does phosphorous in fertilizers cause algal bloom?

Algea loves phosphorus so limiting nutrient and grows out of control cellular respiration takes up all the O2 and takes away O2 from other organsims so they die

58

Sulfate Reducing

SO42 - H2S

59

Sulfur Reducing

S - H2S, Proteus, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas, Salmonella

60

Sulfur Oxidizing

Thiobacillus produces Acid

61

Test Drinking water for?

Scientists typically measure water quality by testing for the presence of indicator species of bacteria

62

Drinking Water Purification

Water is first passed through a system of filters and a coagulating agent is added to remove particulate matter. Water is then passed through a membrane filter to remove large pathogens such as cryptosporidum and giardia. To finalize the purification process, chemical disinfection (usually with chlorine or ozone) or UV light is applied to the water to kill bacteria, viruses, and the hardy cysts produced by cryptosporidium and giardia.

63

Carbon Cycle

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64

Sulfur Cycle

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65

Phosphorus Cycle

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66

Nitrogen Cycle

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67

 

Disease

 

 

A distrubance of normal body functions

 

68

 

Lyme disease

 

 

Borrelia burgdorferi, G- spirochete,

Rash around bite, arthritis, nervous system/heart effects,

Long course of antibiotics/prevent tick bites, self-check

 

69

 

Plague

 

 

Yersinia pestis,

Swelling of lymph nodes, fever, muscle pain, weakness.

Antibiotics, control rodents/fleas

 

70

 

German measles/ Congenital Rubella Syndrome

 

 

Rubella virus, a + strand ssRNA Rubivirus.

Mild illness to Flu like symptoms, red rash starts on neck/face then spreads.

MMR vaccine, symptomatic treatment

 

71

 

Salmonellosis

 

 

Salmonella typhimerium, Salmonella enteritidis.

Diarrhea, cramps, fever, blood in stool.

Symptomatic treatment, rarely antibiotics (LPS release), clean water/cooked food.

 

72

 

Tuberculosis

 

 

Mycobacterium tuberculosis MDR and EDR forms resist antibiotics.

Long lasting productive cough, chest pain, weight loss, night sweats.

Diagnose with skin/blood test or chest X-ray, Isoniazid and Rifampin

 

73

Pyogenic Liver Abscess

Multibacterial, Typically E. coli, S. aureus, Streptococci, Klebsiella. Large puss filled cavity in/on liver. 4-6wk Antibiotics, surgery to drain abscess

74

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rickettsia rickettsii. High fever, nausea, vomiting, extreme thirst, photosensitivity, blood vessel leackage. Antibiotics, prevent tick bites.

75

Mad Cow Disease/Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis

Prions ‰ÛÒ proteins alter normal protein in nervous system, No DNA/RNA. Incoordination, nervous and/or violent. No vaccine, treatment, cure, do not eat contaminated CNS tissue.

76

Necrotizing faciatis

Group A strep, but also others and fungi. Common microbe in cut/wound, accesses fat or fascia, destroys tissue quickly. Surgical removal of tissue, IV antibiotics

77

Ebola

enveloped - sense ssRNA virus . Flu-like symptoms to hemorrhagic fever and organ failure. ZMAPP, vaccines in trials, avoid contact with bodily fluids

78

Malaria

Plasmodium sp. transmitted by Anopheles mosquito. Flu-like to kidney failure, seizures, coma, death. Primiquine, prevent with vector control, preventative drugs like quinine

79

Measles

Rubeola enveloped ‰ÛÒ sense ssRNA virus. Red rash, fever, cough, runny nose. MMR vaccine

80

Gas Gangrene

Clostridium perfringens. Gas under skin, very rapid destruction of tissue, typically extremeties. Antibiotics, hyperbaric oxygen, surgery

81

Shingles

Varicella Zoster virus, hides in nervous system. Localized red blotches turning to blisters to scabs, Chicken pox vaccine or Zostavax

82

Rabies

Rhabdoviridae, zoonotic from bats, foxes, raccoons. Highly variable incubation, Flu-like to anxiety, depression, hydrophobia. Treatment with vaccine after exposure.

83

Necrotizing enterocolitis

Typically G-, polymicrobial? Feeding intolerance, blood in stool, abdominal distention/discoloration, gas on X-ray. Prevent w/ non-aggressive feeding, appropriate inoculation of microbiome, Treat w/ Antibiotics/surgery

84

Tetanus

Clostridium tetani. Flu-like to muscle stiffness to lock-jaw, muscle spasms breaking bones. TDaP Vaccine, antibiotics

85

Tularemia

Francisella tularensis once a bioweapon. Fever headache chills to septicemia and death. Not contagious, avoid dead rabbits when mowing lawn

86

Jaundice

Many diseases that affect liver function or RBC longevity including all hepatitis groups. Yellowing of skin. Hydrate, feedings, blue light, surgery to unblock bile duct

87

Leprosy/Hansen's disease

Mycobacterium lepare zoonotic from armadillo. Sores, bumps, pale skin, nerve damage, loose toes, nose, ears, fingers. BCG vaccine shortens treatment, anti-inflammatories and multiple antibiotics

88

Leprosy/Hansen's disease

Mycobacterium lepare zoonotic from armadillo. Sores, bumps, pale skin, nerve damage, loose toes, nose, ears, fingers. BCG vaccine shortens treatment, anti-inflammatories and multiple antibiotics

89

Jaundice

Many diseases that affect liver function or RBC longevity including all hepatitis groups. Yellowing of skin. Hydrate, feedings, blue light, surgery to unblock bile duct

90

Tularemia

Francisella tularensis once a bioweapon. Fever headache chills to septicemia and death. Not contagious, avoid dead rabbits when mowing lawn

91

Tetanus

Clostridium tetani. Flu-like to muscle stiffness to lock-jaw, muscle spasms breaking bones. TDaP Vaccine, antibiotics

92

Necrotizing enterocolitis

Typically G-, polymicrobial? Feeding intolerance, blood in stool, abdominal distention/discoloration, gas on X-ray. Prevent w/ non-aggressive feeding, appropriate inoculation of microbiome, Treat w/ Antibiotics/surgery

93

Rabies

Rhabdoviridae, zoonotic from bats, foxes, raccoons. Highly variable incubation, Flu-like to anxiety, depression, hydrophobia. Treatment with vaccine after exposure.

94

Shingles

Varicella Zoster virus, hides in nervous system. Localized red blotches turning to blisters to scabs, Chicken pox vaccine or Zostavax

95

Gas Gangrene

Clostridium perfringens. Gas under skin, very rapid destruction of tissue, typically extremeties. Antibiotics, hyperbaric oxygen, surgery

96

Measles

Rubeola enveloped ‰ÛÒ sense ssRNA virus. Red rash, fever, cough, runny nose. MMR vaccine

97

Malaria

Plasmodium sp. transmitted by Anopheles mosquito. Flu-like to kidney failure, seizures, coma, death. Primiquine, prevent with vector control, preventative drugs like quinine

98

Ebola

enveloped - sense ssRNA virus . Flu-like symptoms to hemorrhagic fever and organ failure. ZMAPP, vaccines in trials, avoid contact with bodily fluids

99

Necrotizing faciatis

Group A strep, but also others and fungi. Common microbe in cut/wound, accesses fat or fascia, destroys tissue quickly. Surgical removal of tissue, IV antibiotics

100

Mad Cow Disease/Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis

Prions ‰ÛÒ proteins alter normal protein in nervous system, No DNA/RNA. Incoordination, nervous and/or violent. No vaccine, treatment, cure, do not eat contaminated CNS tissue.

101

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rickettsia rickettsii. High fever, nausea, vomiting, extreme thirst, photosensitivity, blood vessel leackage. Antibiotics, prevent tick bites.

102

Pyogenic Liver Abscess

Multibacterial, Typically E. coli, S. aureus, Streptococci, Klebsiella. Large puss filled cavity in/on liver. 4-6wk Antibiotics, surgery to drain abscess

103

 

Tuberculosis

 

 

Mycobacterium tuberculosis MDR and EDR forms resist antibiotics.

Long lasting productive cough, chest pain, weight loss, night sweats.

Diagnose with skin/blood test or chest X-ray, Isoniazid and Rifampin

 

104

 

Salmonellosis

 

 

Salmonella typhimerium, Salmonella enteritidis.

Diarrhea, cramps, fever, blood in stool.

Symptomatic treatment, rarely antibiotics (LPS release), clean water/cooked food.

 

105

 

German measles/ Congenital Rubella Syndrome

 

 

Rubella virus, a + strand ssRNA Rubivirus.

Mild illness to Flu like symptoms, red rash starts on neck/face then spreads.

MMR vaccine, symptomatic treatment

 

106

 

Plague

 

 

Yersinia pestis,

Swelling of lymph nodes, fever, muscle pain, weakness.

Antibiotics, control rodents/fleas

 

107

 

Lyme disease

 

 

Borrelia burgdorferi, G- spirochete,

Rash around bite, arthritis, nervous system/heart effects,

Long course of antibiotics/prevent tick bites, self-check

 

108

 

Disease

 

 

A distrubance of normal body functions