exam 3 Flashcards Preview

Bio 106 csun > exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in exam 3 Deck (86)
Loading flashcards...
1

lamarckianism

traits acquired during the life time of an individual were passed on to offspring

2

darwins theory

natural selection or genetically based variation leads to evolutionary change

3

charles lylell principles of geology

earth is much older than 6000 yrs old earths geology is formed by slow moving forces

4

thomas robert malthus

an essay on the principle of population 1798 human population will be limited by factor such as food water some individuals die others survive

5

favorable variations would tend to be preserved and unfavorable ones to be destroyed

charles darwin

6

alfred russel wallace

closely related species occupied neighboring geographic areas barriers such as the amazon separated related species

7

descent with modification

traits vary among individuals individuals with certain traits reproduce and have more offspring

8

Staph infections

30-40% of healthy people carry staph infection begins with little cut or surgical wound with gets infected staph can be minor (fingernail infection) or ver serious and lead to death -organ failure

9

high risk of staph

athletes people with weakened immune systems infections of surgical wounds

10

Antibiotics

chemical (drugs) that kill bacteria or slow their growth by interfering with function of cell structure

11

history antibiotics

a fungus penicillium can kill bacteria 1928 for decades antibiotics treated bacterial infections and death rate due bacteria dropped resistance started to emerge some staph strains resist every type of treatment

12

how do bacteria quire resistance

mutation and gene transfer

13

Mutation

creates new genetic diversity by creating new alleles

14

what is an allele

variant of a gene

15

cystic fibrosis is caused by ...

a mutation in the CFTR gene cystic fibrosis deletes the CTT-which interferes with gene function

16

what is a population

group of the same species that live together in the same geographic area

17

how do populations evolve

a new trait can raise when that trait is favored it is advantageous to have that trait

18

fitness

how well an individual does -survival and reproduction resulting in offspring

 

Factors related to fitness:

-survive

-reproduce

-offspring quality

 

19

evolution

is the change in allele evolution over time

20

what happens when a trait is favored (over others)

the alleles that code for those traits increase frequency over time

21

natural selection

favors some traits over others the population shows adaptation

22

adaptation

advantageous traits become more common in population over time

23

evolution by natural selection occurs in populations or individuals ?

populations individual organism do not experience a change in allele frequencies over time therefore individuals don't evolve

24

sexual selection

occurs when traits used in attracting mates vary and individuals with certain traits attract the most mates

25

inbreeding

the mating between relatives is the most intensively studied form of nonrandom mating

26

consequences of inbreeding

because relatives share a common ancestor individuals that breed with relatives are likely to have the same alleles

27

how does inbreeding influence evolution

although inbreeding does not directly cause evolution it can speed up the rate of evolutionary change it increases the rte at which natural selection eliminates deleterious alleles from a population

28

genetic drift

its all about chance random fluctuations in the number of alleles in a pulsation an allele may increase or decrease by chance over time

29

founder effect

few individuals colonize and establish small isolated populations new population is likely to have different allele frequencies than the source population by chance

30

population bottle neck

a sudden reduction in the number of (different) alleles in a population