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Flashcards in EXAM 3 Deck (55):
1

How much stronger is improved plow steel than regular plow steel?

15%

2

Formula: SWL wire

= square of circumference / 2.5

3

Ventilate OR Do NOT Ventilate: Non-hygroscopic cargo: Cargo loaded in cold climate - ship steams into warmer climate

Do NOT ventilate

4

Defn: The difference between the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures

Wet-bulb depression

5

Defn: The temperature at which condensation will occur for a given volume of air

dew point

6

What is the minimum safety factor that should be used when determining breaking strain?

5

7

List (3) main ways to reduce sweat damage to cargo:

1. dunnage (sweat battens) 2. tarps to cover top tier of cargo 3. VENTILATION

8

Name (3) advantages of a modern crane over the married fall system?

1. greater spotting area 2. safety 3. simplicity of ops

9

What is the ditty for ventilation of non-hygroscopic cargo?

"Hot to Cold - Ventilate Bold, Cold to Hot, Ventilate Not."

10

Defn: the weight of water vapor present in a given per unit weight of dry air

specific humidity

11

Defn: Occurs when the maximum amount of water vapor a volume of air can hold at a given temperature is present

saturation

12

When the dew point, saturation point, and wet-bulb temperature are all the same the air is said to be __________.

saturated

13

Formula: Breaking strain of wire

= 2.5 x square of circumference

14

Moisture that forms on the ship's structure and can drip onto the cargo as a result of temperature differences between the metal of the ship and the outside environment.

Ship sweat

15

What powers the modern ship-board crane?

electro-hydraulics OR hydraulics

16

What can happen when oxygen and moisture are combined within a cargo hold?

corrosion

17

What is one of the first initial actions you must take in the event of a fire onboard ship?

secure ventilation immediately

18

Ventilation can more accurately be described as _____ __________ for cargo holds.

air conditioning

19

Preventing moisture and damage to cargo that results from condensation within a cargo hold is the primary objective of what?

ventilation

20

TRUE/FALSE: It is always beneficial to ventilate a cargo hold.

FALSE

21

What can be fitted to the sides of a ship's cargo hold that serves to prevent cargo from contacting ship sweat?

sweat battens

22

Ventilate OR Do NOT Ventilate: When the dewpoint of the outisde air is lower than the dewpoint of the hold?

Ventilate

23

A ______ _________ on a crane indicates the angle of the jib.

boom indicator

24

____________ is a type of airborne damage to cargo that is caused by dust particles; ventilation does not help remove these particles.

contamination

25

Formula: Absolute Humidity

= specific humidity / volume

26

Ventilate OR Do NOT Ventilate: Non-hygroscopic cargo: Ship loaded in warmer climate - ship steams into cool climate and cools down

Ventilate

27

Moisture that may form on the cargo itself from the cargo.

Cargo sweat

28

The warmer the air the (more/less) air it can hold?

more

29

When the vapor pressure within a hygroscopic cargo exceeds the vapor pressure of a cargo hold the cargo will do what?

give off moisture

30

What is the ROT regarding dewpoints of a cargo hold?

Always try to have the lowest dewpoint in cargo hold

31

_________ is a type of airborne damage that is caused by vapors introduced to a cargo hold from odorous cargoes; ventilation does not help prevent this kind of damage.

tainting

32

Defn: the pressure exerted by water vapor present in a volume of air (expressed in in. Hg)

vapor pressure

33

The term used for heaving on the winches of both booms of a married fall system in order to get the load up high enough to clear the bulwarks; Results in a great angle between the two falls and the two winches pulling against one another, placing great strain on all the gear involved

tight lining

34

What occurs if additional water vapor is present with air in a saturated condition?

condensation

35

A ______ ____ on a pedestal crane prevents the jib from being raised too high.

boom stops

36

Formula: Stress on Topping Lift

= (Length of topping lift) / (ht of mast x wt lifted)

37

Defn: The ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the amount of water vapor the air is capable of holding at that temperature.

relative humdity

38

Ventilate OR Do NOT Ventilate: Hygroscopic cargo: vessel sailing from warm climate to a cold climate

Ventilate

39

Which source of water vapor in a cargo hold causes the most problems?

hygroscopic cargos

40

Defn: cargo capable of absorbing moisture

hygroscopic cargo

41

Most damage to cargo occurs from _____ sweat.

ship sweat

42

What is the tool used to determine the dew point of a cargo hold while underway?

Sling psychrometer

43

Defn: the weight of water present per volume of dry air

absolute humidity

44

21% of air is made up of what chemical component?

oxygen

45

What kind of ventilation do modern ships possess?

forced ventilation

46

Defn: The temperature of the air that is measured accounting for relative humdity

Wet-bulb temperature

47

Vapor pressure within cargo (increases/decreases) as the temperature increases?

increases.

48

Defn: A term used to indicate the steps taken to prevent damage to cargoes from condensed moisture in cargo holds.

Ventilation

49

78% of air is made up of what chemical component?

nitrogen

50

Forumla: SWL rope

BS / SF

51

The amount of water vapor that a given sample of air can hold varies directly with the ___________ of the air.

temperature

52

An increase of 20 degs. Fahrenheit will roughly _________ the amount of water vapor a given amount of air can hold.

double

53

The second-most common cause of moisture damage to cargo is from _______ sweat.

cargo sweat

54

Defn: The temperature of the air when measured by a regular thermometer (that does not account for relative humidity)

Dry-bulb temperature

55

What are (2) ways that water vapor can be introduced to a cargo hold?

1. outside air brought in by ventilation 2. hygroscopic cargos