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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (249):
1

All-weather liberal

Merton’s 4 patterns of prejudice:
●__________ __________ _________ – not prejudice/does not discriminate.

2

income inequality

Increasing Inequality, Increasing Controversy

In recent decades, __________ __________ has increased, and surveys show most people think income differences are too large.

3

Caste systems

ascription

mobility

life

occupation, marriage

agrarian

__________ __________ are based on birth (__________); permit little or no social __________; shape a person’s entire __________, including __________ and __________; are common in traditional, __________ societies.

4

stereotype

One type of prejudice is the __________, an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category.

5

Prejudice

__________ a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people

6

status consistency

__________ __________ the degree of uniformity in a person’s social standing across various dimensions of social inequality

7

Discrimination

__________ unequal treatment of various categories of people

8

Capitalism

Worker organization (unions)

9

ethnicity

Societies may or may not set categories of people apart based on differences in __________.

10

ethnicity

__________ a shared cultural heritage minority

11

Schooling

Social stratification involves many dimensions:
•__________—Schooling affects occupation and income. Some categories of people have greater opportunities for schooling than others.
• Family ancestry, race and ethnicity, and gender all a effect social standing.

12

Genocide

- the systematic killing of one category of people by another.

13

3rd Wave

1970’s – present

perspectives

intersectional

Waves of the Feminist Movement
__________ __________ (__________) – focused on diverse __________ in feminist movement; women of color facing __________ discrimination (race, class and sex).

14

social-conflict theory

social inequality

gender inequality

__________ __________ __________ suggests that
• gender is an important dimension of __________ __________ and social conflict.
• __________ __________ benefits men and disadvantages women.

15

equality, patriarchy, sexism

violence

reproduction

feminism
• endorses the social __________ of women and men and opposes __________ and __________.
• seeks to eliminate __________ against women.
• advocates giving women control over their __________.

16

white anglo-saxon protestants (wasps)

__________ __________ __________ __________were most of the original European settlers of the United States, and many continue to enjoy high social position today.

17

absolute poverty

__________ __________ a lack of resources that is life-threatening

18

stratification

clerical

service jobs

Gender __________ shapes the workplace:
• A majority of women are now in the paid labor force, but 38% hold __________ or __________ __________.

19

Race

__________ refers to socially constructed categories based on biological traits a society defines as important.

20

structural-functionalist

Davis-Moore Thesis

THE DAVIS-MOORE THESIS (STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL PARADIGM)
Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore developed a __________ __________ view of stratification called the “__________ __________ __________.”

21

Masculinity

The Social Construction of Gender (Males)
__________ – the physical, behavioral, and mental or emotional traits believed to be ideal for males.

22

Sexual harrassment

???????????????????????

23

Pornography

sexual violence

$7 billion

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
__________ has been blamed as a “trigger” of __________ __________ against women and is a __________ dollar industry.

24

segregation

__________ is the physical and social separation of categories of people.

25

meritocracy

A __________ - a system in which social position based entirely on personal merit.

26

Symbolic-interaction theory

social standing

Conspicuous consumption

Social Conflict Theory
__________ __________ __________, a micro-level analysis that explores how inequality shapes everyday life, explains that we size people up by looking for clues to their __________ __________. __________ __________ refers to buying and displaying products that make a “statement” about social class. Most people tend to socialize with others whose social standing is similar to their own.

27

class system

A __________ __________ is open - through education and skills become social mobile and rise to another class.

28

inferior order

unfit

respect

Dred Scott Decision, 1857

“Negros for more than a century before have been regarded as beings of an __________ __________, and altogether are __________ to associate with the white race...so far inferior, that they had no rights which the white man was bound to __________.” Roger B. Taney, Supreme Court Justice, on __________ __________ __________, __________

29

Socialist feminism

Wants to change traditional family through a socialist revolution that converts the capitalist economy to a state centered one

30

White Privilege

– a system of advantage that provides opportunities for whites at the expense of minority groups and protects them from racial discrimination; whites collectively control resources that determine life chances for minorities.

31

pluralism

__________ a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing

32

Ideology

How and why are caste and class systems maintained? __________ - it is stratification’s staying power!

33

45.3

14.5%

45%

66%

discuss patterns of poverty and increasing economic inequality in the united States.
• The government classifies __________ million people—__________ of the population—as poor.
• About __________ of the poor are under age 25.
• __________ of the poor are white (including Hispanic), but in relation to their population, African Americans are more likely to be poor.

34

Ethnicity

__________ reflects common ancestors, language, and religion.

35

wealth

__________ the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts

36

genocide

• Recent examples of __________ include Hutus killing Tutsis in the African nation of Rwanda, Serbs killing Bosnians in the Balkans of Eastern Europe, and systematic killing in the Darfur region of Sudan.

37

Gender

__________ the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male

38

FEMINISM

patriarchy

sexism

-Is the advocacy of social equality for men and women, in opposition to __________ and __________.

39

sexual harassment

__________ __________ comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome

40

segregation

segregate

• Although some __________ is voluntary (as by the Amish), majorities usually __________ minorities by excluding them from neighborhoods, schools, and occupations.

41

native americans

__________ __________, the earliest human inhabitants of the Americas, have endured genocide, segregation, and forced assimilation. Today, the social standing of __________ __________ is well below the national average.

42

William Julius Wilson

– Society shares some of the blame.

43

assimilated

• Some categories of people have __________ more than others.

44

Inequality

production

Karl Marx: Class Conflict
__________ is rooted in a person’s relationship to the means of __________.

45

Urban Underclass

– families and individuals in the inner city that represent the very bottom of the economic hierarchy.

46

Prejudice

discrimination

•__________ refers to attitudes; __________ involves actions.

47

The Rule of Thumb

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
__________ __________ __________

48

relative poverty

__________ __________ the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more

49

Ethnicity

– having a shared cultural heritage (i.e., language, common ancestors, religion, etc.

50

Monogamous

sexuality

APPLICATION OF THEORY: SOCIAL CONFLICT ANALYSIS
__________ marriage created to control the __________ of women.

51

Absolute poverty

- deprivation of resources that is life threatening.

52

Talcott Parsons

inequality

complimentary

APPLICATION OF THEORY: STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
Structural functionalists (__________ __________) sees gender __________ organizes family life; __________ roles.

53

false rape report

scrutinizing

score

cold

Examples of Rape Culture
• Inflating __________ __________ __________ statistics
• Publicly __________ a victim’s dress, mental state, motives, and history
• Pressure on men to “__________”
• Pressure on women to not appear “__________”

54

White Innocence

– the false belief that White America is blameless or without fault in historical and contemporary matters of racial injustice; will shift blame to victims of racism, or attempt to excuse racist behavior altogether.

55

capitalist class

advancement

1) Fragmentation of the __________ __________ (employees own stock in company; workers have opportunities for __________, etc.)

56

patriarchy

___________ a form of social organization in which males dominate females

57

miscegenation

__________ biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories

58

sports

fear, loneliness, vulnerability

virile, active, experienced

The Social Construction of Gender (Males)
Characteristics believed to be masculine include:
Having an interest in __________.
Not admitting to __________, __________, or other emotions that express __________.
Being sexually __________, __________, and __________.

59

De jure segregation

de facto segregation

•__________ __________ is segregation by law;__________ __________ describes settings that contain only people of one category.

60

Social mobility

global

postindustrial

The Difference Class Makes
• ___________ __________ is common in the United States, as it is in other high-income countries, but typically only small changes occur from one generation to the next.
• Due to the expansion of the __________, __________ economy, the richest families now earn more than ever; families near the bottom of the class system have seen only small increases.

61

african americans

1865

Jim Crow

1950s, 1960s

segregated schools, overt discrimination

__________ __________ experienced more than two centuries of slavery. Emancipation in __________ gave way to segregation by law (the so-called __________ __________ laws). In the __________ and __________, a national civil rights movement resulted in legislation that outlawed __________ __________ and __________ __________ in employment and public accommodations. Today, despite legal equality, African Americans are still disadvantaged.

62

Racism

__________, a very destructive type of prejudice, asserts that one race is innately superior or inferior to another.

63

support capitalism

The Working Class __________ __________ because they believe they too can be rich one day.

64

intersection theory

__________ __________ analysis of the interplay of race, class, and gender, which often results in multiple dimensions of disadvantage

65

arab americans

Arab Americans

Arab Americans

terrorism

__________ __________ are a growing U.S. minority. Because they come to the United States from so many different nations, __________ __________ are a culturally diverse population, and they are represented in all social classes. They have been a target of prejudice and hate crimes in recent years as a result of a stereotype that links all __________ __________ with __________.

66

middle-income countries

__________ __________ __________ nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole

67

Friedrich Engels

male domination

APPLICATION OF THEORY: SOCIAL CONFLICT ANALYSIS
According to __________ __________, capitalism intensifies __________ __________ in 3 ways:

68

Sex

– biological differences as indicated by reproductive/sexual organs between men and women.

69

Femininity

The Social Construction of Gender (Females)
__________- the physical, behavioral, and mental /emotional characteristics believed to be ideal for females.

70

credit scores

incomes

conventional home loan

subprime loans

Racism: Evidence of Its Permanence in American Society
Blacks with comparable _________ __________ and _________ to Whites are less likely to be offered a __________ _________ __________; deliberately steered towards __________ _________ (Rugh and Massey, 2010 Princeton study).

71

Prejudice

rigid, irrational

positive, negative

– “a __________ and __________ generalization about an entire
group of people.”
Can be both __________ and __________.

72

class system

___________ __________ social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement

73

20%

thirteen times

20%

Wealth

Social stratification involves many dimensions:
• __________—Earnings from work and investments are unequal, with the richest __________ of families earning __________ __________ as much as the poorest __________ of families.
•__________—The total value of all assets minus debts, wealth is distributed more unequally than income, with the richest 20% of families holding 89% of all wealth.

74

higher social standing

cultural capital

The Difference Class Makes
• People with __________ __________ __________ generally have better health, hold certain values and political attitudes, and pass on advantages in the form of “__________ __________” to their children.

75

violence

gender

__________ against women and men is a widespread problem linked to how a society defines __________.

76

Jefferson Davis

equality

lower caste

servile race

__________ __________, President of the Confederacy
“White men have an __________ resulting from a presence of a __________ __________ (blacks), which cannot exist were white men to fill the position here occupied by the __________ __________ (slaves).”

77

Sexism

The belief that one sex is innately superior to the other; can be institutional

78

Multicultural feminism

race, ethnicity

__________ __________ expands the focus on gender stratification to take into account the intersection of gender with __________ and __________;

79

social distance scale

The __________ __________ __________ is one measure of prejudice.

80

•Socialism

•“A political/economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.”

81

Legal protection

Capitalism: __________ __________ in the workplace for workers (unemployment, workers compensation, disability)

82

Gender

culturally created

learned

– a social distinction based on __________ __________ and __________ ideas regarding appropriate behavior, appearance, and mental/emotional characteristics of males and females.

83

caste system

A __________ __________ is a “closed system” with little or no social mobility... inequality based on ascription - you are born into it.

84

1) Advocate change

2) Expanding Human Choice

3) Eliminate Gender Stratification (Inequality): Support ERA

4) Ending sexual violence

5) Promote Sexual Freedom

Five general Principles of Feminism:

85

Structural-functional theory

davis-Moore thesis

caste systems

class systems

__________ _________ _________ points to ways social stratification helps society operate.
• The __________ __________ __________ states that social stratification is universal because of its functional consequences.
• In __________ __________, people are rewarded for performing the duties of their position at birth.
• In __________ __________, unequal rewards attract the ablest people to the most important jobs and encourage effort.

86

Liberal feminism

Accepts the basic organization of society, but seeks to expand women’s rights

87

meaning, importance

hierarchy

Caucasoids, Mongoloids, Negroids

• The __________ and __________ of race vary from place to place and over time.
• Societies use racial categories to rank people in a __________, giving some people more money, power, and prestige than others.
• In the past, scientists created three broad categories— __________, __________, and __________—but there are no biologically pure races.

88

Class systems

birth

meritocracy

social mobility

industrial, postindustrial

__________ __________ are based on both __________ (ascription) and __________ (individual achievement); permit some __________ __________; are common in modern __________ and __________ societies.

89

Unequal

physical, cultural

Involuntary

subordinate status

in-group, inter-group

Subordinate Groups: Definition and Characteristics
Characteristics:
● __________ treatment
● Distinct __________ and __________ traits
● __________ membership
● Are aware of their __________ __________
● And experience __________ marriage more than __________ marriages.

90

predatory lenders

Wells Fargo

Bank of America/Countrywide

wealth building

homebuying

subprime loans

Racism: Evidence of Its Permanence in American Society
2010 DOJ Report also found that __________ _________ such as __________ __________ and __________ __________ __________/__________ (among others) held “__________ __________ seminars” in black churches to encourage __________; steered customers toward __________ __________.

91

pluralistic

U.S. society is __________ in that all people in the United States, regardless of race or ethnicity, have equal standing under the law.

92

white ethnic americans

white ethnics

enclaves

__________ __________ __________ are non-WASPs whose ancestors emigrated from Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In response to prejudice and discrimination, many __________ __________ formed supportive residential __________.

93

meritocracy

__________ social stratification based on personal merit

94

1955, present day

income gap

4%, 62%

poor neighborhoods

Racism: Evidence of Its Permanence in American Society
From _________ until __________ __________, __________ __________ among black and white has remained the same; _________ of Whites vs. _________ of Blacks live in _________ _________.

95

blue-collar occupations

__________ __________ __________ lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor

96

capitalists

__________ people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits

97

symbolic-interaction theory

performances

socially construct

gender

social situations, deferential

__________ __________ __________ suggests that
• individuals use gender as one element of their personal __________ as they __________ __________ reality through everyday interactions.
•__________ plays a part in shaping almost all our everyday experiences.
Because our society defines men as having more value than women, the sex roles that define how women and men should behave place men in control of __________ __________; women play a more
__________ role.

98

culture theory

There are four theories of prejudice:
• __________ __________ (Bogardus) claims that prejudice is rooted in culture; we learn to feel greater social distance from some categories of people.

99

upward

downward

Social mobility can occur in one of two ways - __________ or __________.

100

genocide

• Historical examples of __________ include the extermination of Jews by the Nazis and the killing of Western-leaning people in Cambodia by Pol Pot.

101

income

__________ earnings from work or investments

102

1) creates more wealth and power for men.
2) turns women into consumers who seek personal fulfillment by buying and using products.
3) assigns women to tasks organized around home life.

APPLICATION OF THEORY: SOCIAL CONFLICT ANALYSIS
According to Friedrich Engels, capitalism intensifies male domination in 3 ways:

103

davis-Moore thesis

__________ __________ __________ the functional analysis claiming that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society

104

Ethnicity

__________ refers to socially constructed categories based on cultural traits a society defines as important.

105

Rape culture

misogynistic, objectification, sexual violence

rights, safety

__________ __________ is perpetuated through the use of __________ language, the __________ of women’s bodies, and the glamorization of __________ __________.
This creates a society that disregards women’s __________ and __________.

106

education

bachelor’s degrees

law school

medicine

business administration

Gender stratification shapes __________:
• Women now earn 57% of __________ __________.
• Women make up 48% of __________ __________ students and are an increasing share of graduates in professions traditionally dominated by men, including __________ and __________ __________.

107

Gerhard Lenski

hunting and gathering

horticultural, pastoral

agrarian, industrial

postindustrial

Analyze the link between a society’s technology and its social stratification.
__________ __________ identifies five types of societies defined by their productive technology: __________ and ___________, __________ and __________, ___________, __________, and __________ societies.

108

technology

power

capitalism

APPLICATION OF THEORY: SOCIAL CONFLICT ANALYSIS
Despite advances in __________, men still hold __________ in society – reinforced through __________.

109

Segregation

- The physical and social separation of categories of people.

110

low-income countries

__________ __________ __________ nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor

111

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

A system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy.
Has 4 basic principles:
1) is a trait of society; not a reflection of individual differences - it is part of the social structure.
2) persists over generations.
3) is universal, but varies from culture to culture.
4) it involves inequality and beliefs; perpetuated and supported by ideology.

112

global comparisons

feminine

masculine

• Evidence that gender is rooted in culture includes __________ __________ by Margaret Mead and others showing how societies define what is __________ and __________ in various ways.

113

prejudice

__________ is a rigid and unfair generalization about a category of people.

114

Proletariat

(workers)

115

ethnicity

The importance of __________ varies from place to place and over time.

116

conspicuous consumption

__________ __________ buying and using products because of the “statement” they make about social position

117

Capitalism

•“an economic/political system in which a country's trade & industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state (collective)”.

118

Institutional discrimination

Merton’s 4 patterns of prejudice:
● __________ __________ – discrimination built into the overall social structure and institutions (i.e., health care, education, criminal justice system, economy, etc.

119

Active bigot

Merton’s 4 patterns of prejudice:
●_________ __________ – prejudice/discriminates.

120

gender roles

__________ __________ (also known as sex roles) attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex

121

2010 DOJ

Wells Fargo

mud people

subprime loans

ghetto loans

Racism: Evidence of Its Permanence in American Society
__________ __________ investigation found that __________ __________ referred to black customers as “__________ __________” and their __________ __________ as “__________ __________”.

122

institutional prejudice

__________ _________ and discrimination bias built into the operation of society’s institutions

123

sexual harassment

sexual objects

moral issue

power issue

• __________ __________ mostly victimizes women because our culture encourages men to be assertive and to see women in sexual terms.
• Pornography portrays women as __________ __________. Many see pornography as a __________ __________; because pornography dehumanizes women, it is also a __________ __________.

124

lead, aggressive

profanity

flatters, displays

marriage, children

The Social Construction of Gender (Females)
Characteristics regarded as feminine include:
Allowing men to take the __________ or be __________.
Refraining from the use of __________.
Wearing clothing/make-up that __________ and/or __________ the female body.
Desiring __________ and __________ as part of life goals.

125

Racism

practices, beliefs, social relations

phenomena

hierarchy, social structure

superiority, privilege

discrimination, oppression

– refers “to a host of _________, __________, _________ __________ and __________ that work to reproduce a racial __________ and __________ __________ that yields __________ and __________ for some, and __________ and __________ for others.”

126

hispanic americans/latinos

Hispanic minority

poorest

Cubans

__________ __________ __________, the largest U.S. minority, include many ethnicities sharing a Spanish heritage. Mexican Americans, the largest __________ __________, are concentrated in the southwestern region of the country and are the __________ Hispanic category. __________, concentrated in Miami, are the most affluent Hispanic category.

127

ideology

Changing __________ involves challenging the status quo (the ideas and values of the most powerful in society).

128

Blacks

Hispanics

3 times

poverty

Racism: Evidence of Its Permanence in American Society
__________ and _________ are __________ _________ more likely to live in __________ than Whites.

129

minority, dominant

narrowed, personal



Subordinate Groups: Definition and Characteristics
● Same as __________; members have less control and power compared with members of __________ group.
● Life opportunities are __________; lack is not due to __________ shortcomings.

130

assimilation

___________ the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture

131

Status consistency

__________ __________-the degree of consistency in a person’s social standing across various dimensions of inequality.

132

sexism

__________ the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other

133

2015 DOJ, Ferguson

67% , 93%

arrests

missed, partial, traffic ticket payments

arrests, tickets, use of force

unlawful bias

Racism: Evidence of Its Permanence in American Society
__________ __________ report of __________ found that a) __________ of Black people made up __________ of __________; b) Blacks were more likely to be arrested for _________, _________, or late __________ _________ __________. c) found that “disproportionate # of __________, _________, and use of __________ __________ __________ re: Black people were result of “__________ __________.”

134

Radical feminism

“Tyranny” of family needs to removed from society.

135

Oscar Lewis

- Culture of Poverty

136

slavery

oppression

Racism-
Used to justify __________; historically linked to _________ of other races.

137

race

__________ a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important

138

Blame individuals

Blame society

one-third

Explanations of Poverty
•__________ __________: The culture of poverty thesis states that poverty is caused by shortcomings in the poor themselves (Oscar Lewis).
•__________ ___________: Poverty is caused by society’s unequal distribution of wealth and lack of good jobs (William Julius Wilson).
• The fact that __________ of the U.S. population is either poor or low income (living with income at less than twice the poverty level) suggests that society more than individual traits is the main cause of poverty.

139

gender stratification

__________ __________ the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women

140

multinational corporation

__________ __________ a large business that operates in many countries

141

right to vote

1920

second wave

1st issue feminists advocated for was the __________ __________ __________; secured for white women in __________; ongoing issues of inequality resulted in a “__________ __________” of feminism.

142

alienation

__________ the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness

143

pluralistic

U.S. society is not __________ in that all racial and ethnic categories do not have equal social standing.

144

Derrick Bell

status

poorest

Blacks therefore are the “faces at the bottom of the well” (__________ __________) whose presence elevates the __________ of even the __________ of whites.

145

Minority

__________ Any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates

146

white-collar occupations

__________ __________ __________ higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity

147

Minority

- any category of people who are set apart by physical and cultural characteristics and are socially disadvantaged.

148

Assimilation

- The process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture.

149

social stratification

THE DAVIS-MOORE THESIS (STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL PARADIGM)
__________ __________ has beneficial consequences for operation of a society.

150

dependency theory

___________ __________ a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones

151

2nd Wave

1960’s

The Feminine Mystique

employment, pay

sexual, reproductive

Waves of the Feminist Movement
__________ __________ (__________) – sparked by Betty Friednan’s book “__________ __________ __________”; bored and frustrated housewives wanted equal __________ opportunities and __________; __________ freedom and __________ rights.

152

Hypersegregation

• __________ means having little social contact with people beyond the local community.

153

Muscular

facial/body hair

aggressive, defend oneself

competitive

The Social Construction of Gender (Males)
Characteristics believed to be masculine include:
__________ bodies and __________ __________ __________.
Being __________ and able to __________ __________.
Being __________.

154

more likely

single-female

feminization

Women are __________ __________ to be poor than men, particularly __________ __________ headed household- “a __________ of poverty.”

155

feminist

1840’s

Abolition Movement

The __________ movement began during the __________ as part of the __________ __________.

156

•Socialism

Wealth is collectively acquired and shared equally.

157

Class

caste

__________ systems have less status consistency while __________ systems have more.

158

proletarians

people who sell their labor for wages

159

Relative poverty

- feeling deprived in comparison to others.

160

social equality

18%, traditional roles

liberal, socialist, radical

Today, support for __________ __________ for women and men is widespread. Just __________ of U.S. adults say that women should return to their __________ __________ in society. Support for __________ feminism is widespread, with greater opposition directed toward __________ and __________ feminism.

161

Race

__________ is only skin deep

162

social mobility

__________ __________ a change in position within the social hierarchy

163

Rape Culture

media, popular culture

__________ __________ : Refers to “an environment in which rape is widespread, sexual violence against women is seen as normal and excused in the __________ and __________ __________.”

164

structural social mobility

__________ __________ __________ a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts

165

feminism

__________ support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism

166

discrimination

__________ refers to actions by which a person treats various categories of people unequally.

167

genocide

__________ the systematic killing of one category of people by another

168

Gender

- It guides self perception and interaction.

169

race

There is no pure __________.

170

Pluralism

social parity

equality

- a state in which people of all races and ethnicities, while distinct have _________ _________ (__________).

171

social stratification

sexism

patriarchy

• Gender is not only about difference: Because societies give more power and other resources to men than to women, gender is an important dimension of __________ __________. __________ is built into the operation of social institutions.
• Although some degree of __________ is found almost everywhere, it varies throughout history and from society to society.

172

Power

Occupational Prestige

Social stratification involves many dimensions:
•__________—Income and wealth are important sources of power.
•__________ __________—White-collar jobs generally offer more income and prestige than blue-collar jobs. Many lower-prestige jobs are performed by women and people of color.

173

Friedrich Engels

private property

class hierarchy

Marriage, family, sexuality

Capitalism, low wages, maintaining

__________ __________ tied gender stratification to the rise of __________ __________ and a __________ __________. __________ and the __________ are strategies by which men control their property through control of the __________ of women. __________ exploits everyone by paying men __________ __________ and assigning women the task of __________ the home.

174

genocide

__________ is the systematic killing of one category of people by another.

175

ethnicity

People choose to play up or play down their __________.

176

expressive qualities

APPLICATION OF THEORY: STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

Girls taught to be emotionally responsive and sensitive to others (__________ __________).

177

Marx

capitalists

socialism

communism

__________ believed that one day, the working class would overthrow the __________.; convert to __________ and then __________.

178

Max Weber

economic class

social status, prestige, power

socioeconomic status (SeS)

Social Conflict Theory
• __________ __________ identified three distinct dimensions of social stratification: __________ __________, __________ __________ or __________, and __________. Conflict exists between people at various positions on a multidimensional hierarchy of __________ __________ __________.

179

Global Stratification

__________ __________ patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole

180

assimilation

__________ is a process by which minorities gradually adopt the patterns of the dominant culture.

181

Capitalism

Wealth is privately owned; profit is primary motivator.

182

global feminism

global stratification

__________ __________ points out that gender inequality also involves the varying positions of women around the world in the system of __________ __________.

183

Fair-weather liberal

Merton’s 4 patterns of prejudice:
●__________ __________ _________ – not prejudice/but discriminating.

184

Prejudice, discrimination

• __________ and __________ perpetuate themselves in a vicious circle, resulting in social disadvantage that fuels additional __________ and __________.

185

body hair

easily, often

legs crossed, little space

The Social Construction of Gender (Females)
Characteristics regarded as feminine include:
The absence of __________ __________ with the exception of eye brows, lashes, and head hair.
Smiling __________ and __________.
Sitting with __________ __________ and occupying __________ __________.

186

blame the poor

Some people in the U.S. __________ __________ __________ for their poverty.

187

upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents

Intergenerational social mobility -

188

44%

578,400

discuss patterns of poverty and increasing economic inequality in the united States.
• About __________ of the heads of poor families work at least part time.
• One estimate put the number of homeless people on a single night at __________.

189

institutional prejudice

discrimination

• __________ __________ and __________ are biases built into the operation of society’s institutions, including schools, hospitals, the police, and the workplace.

190

Colonialism

__________ the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations

191

neocolonialism

__________ a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations

192

conflict theory

There are four theories of prejudice:
• __________ __________ claims that prejudice is a tool used by powerful people to divide and control the population.

193

Capitalism

alienation

__________ causes __________ – (isolation and misery from being powerless).

194

Gender

__________ refers to the meaning a culture attaches to being female or male.

195

racism

__________ the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another

196

430,000

raped, sexually assaulted, rape

known

own home

VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
Each year __________ women are __________, __________ __________, or the victims of an attempted __________.
Most offenders are __________ to victim
Most likely to be assaulted in her __________ __________.

197

Gender roles

-attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex.

198

matriarchy

__________ a form of social organization in which females dominate males

199

scapegoat theory

There are four theories of prejudice:
• __________ __________ claims that prejudice results from frustration among people who are disadvantaged.

200

Race

socially significant

- a category of men and women who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society deem _________ _________; usually indicated by physical features and is based on superficial characteristics.

201

ideology

__________ cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality

202

Intersection theory

multi-layered system

social disadvantages

__________ __________ suggests that
• particular dimensions of difference in women’s lives combine in a __________ __________, creating unique disadvantage for various categories of women.
• women of color encounter greater __________ __________ than white women and earn much less than white men.

203

Unequal rewards

THE DAVIS-MOORE THESIS (STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL PARADIGM)
__________ __________ are the key to a more productive society.

204

Timid bigot

Merton’s 4 patterns of prejudice:
●__________ __________ – prejudice/not discriminating.

205

social stratification

__________ __________ a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy

206

Social-conflict theory

classes

social conflict

Karl Marx

capitalists, proletarians

__________ __________ __________ claims that stratification divides societies in __________, benefiting some categories of people at the expense of others and causing __________ __________.
•__________ __________ claimed that capitalism places economic production under the ownership of __________, who exploit the __________, who sell their labor for wages.

207

structural-functional theory

preindustrial societies

dysfunctional

complementary roles

__________ __________ __________ suggests that
• in __________ __________, distinctive roles for males and females reflect biological differences between the sexes.
• in industrial societies, marked gender inequality becomes __________ and gradually decreases.
Talcott Parsons described gender differences in terms of __________ __________ that promote the social integration of families and society as a whole.

208

socioeconomic status (SeS)

__________ _________ _________ a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality

209

asian americans

Chinese

Japanese

40%

__________ __________ have suffered both racial and ethnic hostility. Although some prejudice and discrimination continue, both __________ and __________ Americans now have above-average income and schooling. Asian immigrants— especially Koreans, Indians, and Filipinos—now account for __________ of all immigration to the United States.

210

emotional

non-threatening

intimidating

The Social Construction of Gender (Females)
Characteristics regarded as feminine include:
Becoming __________ when upset.
Being __________ or __________ in behavior/attitude.

211

gender identity

gender roles

socialization

Through the socialization process, gender becomes part of our personalities (__________ __________) and our actions (_________ _________). All the major agents of __________—family, peer groups, schools, and the mass media—reinforce cultural definitions of what is feminine and masculine.

212

Assimilation

• __________ is a strategy to escape prejudice and discrimination and to achieve upward social mobility.

213

Liberal feminism

existing

Socialist feminism, socialism

Radical feminism, gender, egalitarian, gender-free

There are three types of feminism:
• __________ __________ seeks equal opportunity for both sexes within the __________ society.
• __________ __________ claims that gender equality will come about by replacing capitalism with __________.
•__________ __________ seeks to eliminate the concept of __________ itself and to create an __________ and __________ __________ society.

214

1st Wave

1840-1920

vote

education

Waves of the Feminist Movement
__________ __________ (__________) – right to __________, equal opportunities in __________.

215

stereotype

__________ a simplified description applied to every person in some category

216

segregation

__________ the physical and social separation of categories of people

217

Discrimination

unequally

subtle, blatant

- “treating various categories of people __________.”
Can be __________ or __________.

218

intragenerational social mobility

__________ ___________ __________ a change in social position occurring during a person’s lifetime

219

scapegoat

___________ a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their own troubles

220

• Wealth =
• Disposable Income =
• Marketable Assets =
• Investments =

How wealthy are you??

221

high-income countries

___________ __________ __________ the nations with the highest overall standards of living

222

promiscuous

rape accusations

avoid getting raped, not to rape

Examples of Rape Culture
• Assuming only __________ women get raped
• Refusing to take __________ __________ seriously
• Teaching women to __________ __________ __________ instead of teaching men __________ __________ __________

223

Patriarchy

(The rule of the fathers) is a form of social organization in which males dominate females

224

instrumental qualities

APPLICATION OF THEORY: STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

Boys taught to be rational, self-assured , and competitive (__________ __________).

225

politics

increased significantly

military personnel

Gender stratification shapes __________:
• Although the number of women in politics has __________ __________, the vast majority of elected officials, especially at the national level, are men.
• Women make up only about 15% of U.S. __________ __________.

226

Social stratification

generation

inequality

caste, class

__________ _________ is a trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences; carries over from one __________ to the next; is supported by a system of cultural beliefs that defines certain kinds of __________ as just; takes two general forms: __________ systems and __________ systems.

227

1) is a trait of society; not a reflection of individual differences - it is part of the social structure.
2) persists over generations.
3) is universal, but varies from culture to culture.
4) it involves inequality and beliefs; perpetuated and supported by ideology.

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
A system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy.
Has 4 basic principles:

228

emotional, tearful

provider, protector

The Social Construction of Gender (Males)
Characteristics believed to be masculine include:
Refraining from becoming __________ or __________ when upset (allowed in cases of bereavement, however).
Being a __________ and __________ to your family.

229

pluralism

__________ means that racial and ethnic categories, although distinct, have roughly equal social standing.

230

Modernization theory

__________ __________ a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations

231

???????????????

Capitalists

232

Blaming

sexual assault

Sexually explicit

sexual harassment

Examples of Rape Culture
• __________ the victim (“She asked for it!”)
• Trivializing __________ __________ (“Boys will be boys!”)
• __________ __________ jokes
• Tolerance of __________ __________

233

Gerhard Lenski

stratification

agrarian

Industrialization

postindustrial

__________ __________ explains that advancing technology initially increases social __________, which is most intense in __________ societies.
__________ reverses the trend, reducing social stratification.
In __________ societies, social stratification again increases.

234

a change in social position occurring during a person’s lifetime

Intragenerational social mobility –

235

Capitalism

Higher standard of living

236

Assimilation

• __________ involves changes in dress, language, religion, values, and friends.

237

stratification

78%

Gender __________ shapes the workplace:
• Comparing full-time U.S. workers, women earn __________ as much as men.

238

caste system

__________ __________ social stratification based on ascription, or birth

239

remain poor

A significant number of poor people who work __________ __________.

240

functional

THE DAVIS-MOORE THESIS (STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL PARADIGM)
The greater the __________ importance of a position, the more rewards a society attaches to it.

241

felony conviction

employment

criminal record

Racism: Evidence of Its Permanence in American Society
Whites with a _________ _________ are more likely to find __________ than a Black person with no __________ __________ whatsoever (D. Pager, 2003).

242

Socialization

Commercialization/media

consumerism

Structural/situational constraints

Sexist ideology

Gender ideas are perpetuated through:
1. __________
2. __________ __________ images
3. Creating new products for __________ (especially beauty products for women)
4. __________ __________ __________ (employment inequality)
5. __________ __________ – beliefs that men are superior to women.

243

authoritarian personality theory

There are four theories of prejudice:
• __________ __________ __________ (Adorno) claims that prejudice is a personality trait of certain individuals, especially those with little education and those raised by cold and demanding parents.

244

working class

lower class

Social Classes in the United States
•__________ __________—30% to 35% of the population; average income $29,000–$51,000. People in the lower-middle class do blue-collar work; one-quarter of children attend college.
•__________ __________—20% of the population; average income below $29,000. Most people lack nancial security; many live below the poverty line; just 76% of children complete high school.

245

upper class

middle class

Social Classes in the united States
•__________ __________—5% of the population; average income above $217,000. Most in upper-upper class (“old rich”) inherit wealth; lower-upper class (“new rich”) work at high-paying jobs.
•__________ __________—40% to 45% of the population; average income $51,000–$217,000. The upper-middle class has significant wealth; average-middles have less prestige, do white-collar work, and most attend college.

246

intergenerational social mobility

__________ ___________ __________ upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents

247

family life

housework

labor force

Gender stratification shapes __________ __________:
• Most unpaid __________ is performed by women, whether or not they hold jobs outside the home.
• Pregnancy and raising small children keep many women out of the __________ __________ at a time when their male peers are making important career gains.

248

feminization of poverty

__________ __________ __________ the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor

249

White Fragility

– “a state in which even a minimum amount of racial stress becomes intolerable, triggering a range of defensive moves.” Ensures a derailment of racial discussions so that status quo of white supremacy remains. “All Lives Matter”; “Stop Playing Race Card!”