Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (55):
The function of a gene is...
To build proteins, carry genetic information, and to dictate the amino acid sequence and chain length of a protein
The entire DNA double helix is copied during...
A polypeptide is synthesized during...
tRNA carries amino acids during...
mRNA is synthesized during...
What happens to introns?
They are clipped out of mRNA before translation
How are DNA and RNA similar?
They are both involved in protein synthesis and are composed of nucleotides
The function of a prokaryotic flagellum is...
The function of pilus is...
The function of Fimbrea is...
Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds fo the DNA at the...
Structurally similar to cilia but fewer in number in a cell and longer
Type of plant organelle that stores starch
Fluid membrane that bathes the contents of the cytoplasm
Stacks of flattened membrane sacs which package molecules in vesicles for transport and secretion
Membrane sacs that contain hydrolytic enzymes. Enzymes that assist in hydrolysis reactions.
Membranous canals that are found throughout the cytoplasm
Found outside the cell membrane
Small granules which are present in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells which assist in protein synthesis from amino acids.
Structure composed of double membrane surrounding chromatin
Organelle which carries out photosynthesis
Membrane sac of fluid. Plants have a large one and animal cells have a small one
Organelle which carries out chemical reactions which allow oxidation of organic molecules and the use of that energy to produce ATP, the useful form of chemical energy for cells.
Numerous short hair like structures which often assist a cell in moving.
Structure which regulates passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
The study of how organisms inherit DNA, and how variations in DNA result in differences between people.
The complete set of genetic instructions for any organism
Short stretch of DNA in a genome that carries the information required to express a single polypeptide
The precise sequence of nucleotides found in an organism that specify the genetic makeup of that individual
Observable physical properties of an individual
The process of making an RNA copy of the DNA sequence of a specific gene sequence. The copy is mRNA
When the genetic information contained in the mRNA is used as a blueprint to make protein. mRNA is decoded during this process and used to make amino acids
Messenger RNA is a copy of the DNA contained in a gene that transfers the genetic info from DNA inside the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
Ribosomal RNA is a type of RNA that makes ribosomes
Transfer RNA delivers amino acids to the ribosomes
Three nucleotides that are a part of the amino acid that binds to the mRNA codon
Permanent change in the DNA
These do not change the amino acid sequence and do not affect the function of a protein
Has a stop codon in the middle of a sequence. The proteins lose their 3D shape and their functionality
Substitution if one amino acid for another in the polypeptide. This has little effect on function of the protein
Vertical gene transfer
When genetic information in DNA is transmitted from parents to offspring during reproduction
Horizontal gene transfer
The DNA from one genome from one organism is transmitted to another. The cell that gives DNA is a donor cell.
Three main mechanisms of a horizontal transfer
DNA from dead bacteria is taken up by live bacteria
DNA moves from one live bacteria to another
A virus moves DNA from one live bacteria to another
Endospores can can survive extreme conditions
A cluster of gene related functions that are co-regulated
A stretch of regulatory DNA where the RNA polymerase binds
Genes that are usually turned off unless they are needed
Genes are usually turned on unless there is a signal to turn them off
A small piece of DNA, taken from a virus, plasmid, or an organism that can be maintained and into a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted for cloning purposes
Regulation of a gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called auto-inducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density
A concentrated gel like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and bacterial outer membrane