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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (42):
1

Defining Personality

Consistency

Distinctiveness

Personality traits: disposition to behave similarly across situations

2

Consistency

Tendency to behave consistently across situations

3

Distinctiveness

Differences in behavior in the same situation

4

Personality

Characteristic pattern of behaving, thinking, and feeling

5

Psychoanalysis

Theory and therapy focuses on unconscious processes

6

Freud’s 3 levels of consciousness

Conscious

Preconscious

Unconscious

7

3 levels

Conscious

What we are not aware of at any given moment

Thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories

8

3 level

Preconscious

Memories we are not aware of but can easily bring to mind

9

3 levels

Unconscious

Repressed memories, instincts, wishes, desires

Have never been conscious

10

ID

Contains life and death instincts

Operates according to the pleasure principle

11

Ego

Logical, rational part of personality

Operates according to the reality principle

12

Superego

Moral system of the personality

Consist of conscience and ego ideal

13

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory

Conflict

• sex and aggression
• anxiety
• defence mechanism

14

Freud’s Theory of defence mechanism

P1

Used by ego to maintain self-esteem

Defend against anxiety created by a conflict between the ID and superego

15

Freud’s Theory of the defence mechanism

P2

All individuals use defence mechanism

Overuse can lead to psychological problems

Repression is the most commonly used mechanism

16

Defence mechanism

Unconscious reaction that protects a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt

17

Rationalization

Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behaviour

18

Repression

Motivated forgetting of distressing thoughts

19

Projection

Attributing ones own thoughts and feelings to another

20

Displacement

Diverting negative feelings from original source to a substitute target

21

Reaction formation

Behaving in a way that’s opposite to ones true feelings

22

Psychosexual stages of development

The sex instinct is important factor influencing personality

23

Evaluating Freud’s contribution

Contributions

Recognized importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality

Identified role of defense mechanism

Call attention to the unconscious

24

Evaluating Freud’s contribution

Critics argue

People did not typically repress painful memories

Dreams do not have symbolic meaning

Freud’s ideas are difficult to test scientifically

25

The Neo freudians

Carl jung

Sexual instinct is not the main factor in personality

Felt that personality was not almost completely formed in early childhood

26

The neo freudians

Alfred Adler

Predominant force of personality it’s not sexual in nature

Emphasize unity of personality

The driver to overcome feelings of inferiority motivates most human behavior

There is referred to as individual psychology

27

The neo freudians

Karen Horney

Workcenter in two main things
Neurotic personality and feminine psychology

Rejected fruits psychosexual stages and the oedipus complex

Women’s difficulties arise from the failure to live up to idealize version of themselves

28

Stress

Psychological and physiological response to a condition that threatens or challenges

29

Stressor

Any stimulus or event capable of producing physical or emotional stress

30

Life events approach

A person’s well-being can be threatened by major life changes

Includes events most people experience as well as a rare events

31

The social readjustment rating scale

Holmes and Rahe

The scale measures the impact of life events

The scale assigns point values to 43 life events

Criticism of SRRS

32

Catastrophic events

Posttraumatic stress syndrome

Prolonged And severe reaction to catastrophic event or severe chronic stress

I’ve been extremely eager for years, especially with personal connection

Flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive memories

Depression and alcoholism or more common in female survivors

Survivor guilt

33

Every day stressors

Hassles (Lazarus & Delongis)
Irritating Demand that occur daily

Uplifts
Positive experience in life

34

Every day stressors making choices

Three choice related conflicts

Approach conflict

avoidance conflict

approach avoidance conflict

35

Social sources of stress

Racism

Experience by groups that have history of repression

Socioeconomic status

Financial educational and occupational factors

36

Freud’s psychoanalytic Theory

Structure of personality
ID and ego

level of awareness
Conscious and unconscious and preconscious

37


Sigmund freud

Born in 1865 in Veinna Australia

Grew up in a middle-class Jewish home

Medical degree 1881

Develop innovative treatment called psychoanalysis

38

Carl Jung

Analytical psychology

Replaced sex with drive for self actualization

Introversion/extroversion

Personal and collective unconscious

39

Alfred Adler

Individual psychology,

replace sex with Will for power and striving for superiority

, compensation,

inferiority complex/overcompensation

40

Humanistic psychology

People have a natural tendency toward growth and realization of their fullest potential

Humanistic theories or more optimistic about human miniature than Freud’s

41

Carl Roger

Conditions of worth

in effort to gain positive regard, we don’t know the true self,

person centered therapy

42

Abraham Maslow

Proposed a hierarchy I have needs that motivate behavior

The highest need and self actualization