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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (124):
1

Scientific Racism

Improper or incorrect science that actively or passively supports racism

2

New Physical anthropology

The Name for physical anthropology committed to the synthetic study of evolution

3

Typological thinking

Thinking of biological groups as homogeneous or pure when in face they are heterogeneous and mixed.

4

Biocultural Anthropology

Anthropology aimed at exploring interactions between human biology and culture

5

Human Ethology

A hereditarian approach to the study of human behavior, derived in part from Darwinism and employing the analytical constructs of fixed action pattern, innate releasing mechanism, and key stimulus .

6

Fixed Action Pattern

As conceived by human ethologists, an innate sequence of behavior released by a key stimulus of an innate releasing mechanism

7

Innate Releasing Mechanism

The mechanism that, when triggered by a key stimulus, releases a fixed action pattern.

8

Key Stimulus

As conceived by human ethologists, the device that triggers an innate releasing mechanism, thus releasing a fixed action pattern.

9

Body Language

Non-verbal communication

10

Kinesics

The scientific study of human body motion

11

Proxemics

The scientific study of human posture as a form of non-verbal communication, which is sometimes called body language.

12

Behavioral Genetics

The branch of genetics that investigates inherited contributions to behavioral differences

13

Phenotype

The product of gene action, often affected by the environment.

14

Polygenic

Variation in phenotype affected by the action of many genes

15

Sociobiology

An investigation of the biological basis of social behavior using the evolutionary principles of kin selection and fitness.

16

Kin Selection

In sociobiology, reproductive success via genes shared with relatives; sometimes called the biology of nepotism

17

Inclusive Fitness

In sociobiology, the measure, or result, of kin selection

18

Biology of Nepotism

A label for sociobiology focusing on the preferential treatment of kin.

19

Xenophobic

Pertaining to xenophobia, the fear and dislike of foreigners.

20

Evolutionary Psychology

An outgrowth of sociobiology that uses Charles Darwin's theory of evolution to explain aspects of human mentality and behavior as adaptations from the past.

21

Interpretive Anthropology

The anthropological school associated with Clifford Geertz, with the view that culture is lived experience integrated into a coherent, public system of symbols that renders the world intelligible.

22

Revitalization Movement

A term coined by Anthony F.C. Wallace to describe the spontaneous evolution of culture that occurs when communities experience conditions of extreme social and economic duress or marginalization.

23

Hermeneutics

The study of meaning, especially in literary texts, applied by interpretive and post-modern anthropologists to the study of culture.

24

Instrumental Symbols

Victor Turner's term for those symbols that can be consciously wielded in ritual as a form of technology in order to achieve particular ends.

25

Liminal

An ephemeral psychological space in which social arrangements are subject to transformation, inversion, and affirmation.

26

Communitas

A term used by Victor Turner to refer to the ritual fusion of individuals into a collective society.

27

Semiotic

Pertaining to the relationship between symbols and what they represent.

28

Thick Description

In the interpretive anthropology of Clifford Geertz, the process of interpreting culture as text.

29

Text

In the interpretive anthropology of Clifford Geertz, the equivalent of culture, interpreted through a process of thick description.

30

Critical Anthropologists

Anthropologists who self-reflect and share criticisms of positivism

31

Deconstructionism

A term describing the ambition of postmodernism to understand the political and cultural contexts "hidden" behind the writing or "construction" of narratives

32

Poststructural

An adjective that expresses disenchantment with static, mechanistic, and controlling models of culture, with a consequent interest in social process and agency.

33

Gender

The various social roles and identities attributed to individuals and groups on the basis of their biological sex.

34

Development and Underdevelopment Theory

Andre Gunder Frank's theory about the systematic explotation of underdeveloped nation-states and regions by developed nation-states and regions.

35

World-System Theory

Immanuel Wallerstein's theory that core nation-states are engaged in systematic exploitation of peripheral nation-states for labor and natural resources.

36

Modernization

The Western practice of transforming non-capitalist, preindustrial economies into capitalist, industrial economies.

37

Core

In world-system theory, Western nations and regions that expropriate and control resources of non-Western nations and regions; contrasted with the periphery

38

World System

According to political economists, the global expansion of Western capitalism creating a world system of unequal commodity exchange.

39

Great Tradition

Robert Redfield's term for cultures characterized by literacy, industrialization, and rational religions; contrasted with little tradition.

40

Little Tradition

Robert Redfield
Cultures characterized by illiteracy, preindustrial economies, and "irrational" supernatural beliefs; contrasted with great tradition.

41

Authoritative Knowledge

The idea that one body of knowledge is privileged over other bodies in that it has greater access to ultimate reality, or the "truth"

42

Ideology

A term used by Karl Marx and Marxist scholars denoting a system of beliefs that influences the outlooks of individuals and groups.

43

Hegemony

A term for the capacity of one social group to impose particular beliefs or political and economic conditions upon another group.

44

Reflexivity

A popular postmodern analytical strategy of reflecting on the biases and assumptions that inform one's own theories and perspectives.

45

Nihilism

The perspective that traditional values and beliefs are fundamentally uncertain, and that existence is at base nonsensical

46

Medical Anthropology

The cross-cultural pan-historical study of sickness and health.

47

Philosophical Anarchist

Paul Feyerabend
Someone who believes that all scientific paradigms are logically equivalent, with no logical way to choose among them.

48

Invented Tradition

A phrase describing the modern invention of historical events and personages, often with the goal of legitimizing contemporary political or religious ideologies by linking them directly to Antiquity

49

Diary Disease

Pierre Bourdieu
Label for radical deconstruction of some postmodern theorists, particularly those preoccupied with second-guessing their own analysis.

50

Discourses of Power

Michel Foucault
Phrase for the spectrum of institutions, rhetorics, and strategies employed by one group to demonite another group.

51

Practice

Pierre Bourdieu
The concept that society is constructed by purposeful, creative agents who bring society to life through talk and action.
A.K.A. Praxis

52

Fields

Pierre Bourdieu
The dynamic configuration, or network, of objective relationships among social agents and positions

53

Doxa

Pierre Bourdieu
Term for psychological state in which all members of a community consider relations natural, including relations of social, economic, and political inequality

54

Symbolic Domination

Pierre Bourdieu
The tendency of dominant social groups to create and sustain a worldview in which all members of a society, including subjugated members, participate.

55

Symbolic Capital

Pierre Bourdieu
the body of meanings, representations, and objects held to be prestigious or valuable to a social group.

56

Habitus

Pierre Bourdieu
The capacity of individuals to innovate cultural forms based on their personal histories and positions within the community.

57

Ethnomedial

Pertaining to ethnomedicine, the anthropological study of non-Western medical practices.

58

Allopathic

The treatment of illness and disease using the knowledge and techniques of western culture.

59

Biomedicine

The science-based form of ethnomedical knowledge and practice dominant in Western societies.

60

Epiphenomenon

A phenomenon resulting from another phenomenon.

61

Globalization

The expansion of Western institutions and lifeways into non-Western cultures and the emergence of new forms of cultural practice that are global in scope.

62

Global Village

Marshall McLuhan's term for increasingly interconnected global society

63

Glocalization

A term popularized by Roland Robertson to describe the coexistance of globalizing and particularizing tendencies in a society.

64

Creolization

A term suggesting the fusion of divergent cultural concepts and practices, particularly in the context of postcolonial and globalization studies.

65

Applied Anthropology

Anthropology conducted by anthropologists working outside traditional academic settings

66

Ivory Tower

A euphemistic and usually pejorative term for the Academy, or universities.

67

Museological

Pertaining to museology, the academic discipline focusing on museum management, and cultural representation..

68

Cultural Resource Management

Activities that share the practical goal of protecting and preserving objects and places deemed to be of cultural significance.

69

Pundit

A person deemed to be authoritative who renders opinions publically, frequently by way of the mass and electronic media.

70

Hereditarian

The idea that differences among human beings can be accounted for primarily in terms of differential gene distribution.

71

Eugenicist

The science that strives to "improve" humanity through selective breeding.

72

Pioneer Fund

Organization dedicated to advancing the "scientific study of heredity and human differences" and is said to be tinged with biological determinism and racism.

73

Truthy

The way that Stephen Colbert describes the implicit acceptance of a proposition where logic dictates otherwise or where there is a seeming lack of supporting evidence.

74

Ethnobotanist

Study of cross-cultural use of plants

75

Secularization Theory

A body of research and theory that assumes the demise of religion in a modernizing world.

76

Umma

"Community" often used to designate the global diasporic Islamic "nation" a community of the faithful.

77

American Anthropologist

The flagship professional journal of the AAA

78

Postcolonialism

A distinctive body of research and theory within anthropology that seeks to better understand the historical and cultural interconnections between colonizers and the colonized.

79

Naked apery

A disparaging term used to describe unfounded assertions about the inheritance of human behavior

80

Multivocal

The quality of having more than one possible meaning or interpretation.

81

Dominant Symbol

Victor Turner's term for a symbol with multiple, and sometimes contradictory, meanings.

82

Ritual Process

Arnold van Gennep's term for the tripartite nature of ritual, involving separation from society, transition into a new social status, and a new incorporation into society.

83

Landscape Archaeology

Archaeology that considers artifacts and features to be expressions of culture, both incorporating and modifying elements of the natural world.

84

Paradigm

According to Thomas Kuhn, an intellectual framework for "normal" science, which is superseded by another paradigm in a scientific "revolution"

85

Androcentrism

The deeply held cultural bias to view the male as intellectually, spiritually, and physically superior to the female.

86

Patriarchy

A social group governed exclusively by males or groups of males.

87

Victor Turner

Symbolic Archaeology
Believed that social solidarity is a function of the systems of symbolic logic that connect people. Thought that social unity was problematic and should not be taken for granted. Symbols are the tools that people use to reproduce social order. Instrumental symbols, multivocal, dominant symbol, liminal periods, anti-structure, and communitas. Durkheim insights.

88

Clifford Geertz

Interpretive Archaeology
More emphasis on meaning than structure. Idea that the core of culture is a set of integrated moral values that preserve the correspondence of the world. Thought that lived experience is integrated in a coherent public system of symbols that renders the world intelligible. Thick Description, Text.
Insights from Max Weber.

89

Feminist Anthropology

Arose because of new progressive or radicalized political and social agendas in the 1960's. Argued that more powerful and inclusive understanding of society can only be achieved by studying the cultural representation, experiences, and practices associated with women.

90

Anthropology of Women

Two goals.
One: to be emancipatory. It was partisan and practitioners actively sought redress for imbalances created and sustained by an unjust social order that gave men and women different statuses and privileges.
Two: It attempted to expose the sins of a discipline scarred by androcentrism with respect to both the identity and interests of its participants.

91

Political Economy

Development and Underdevelopment theory and world system theory -- tenets of Marxist analysis. Dates back to Jean Jacques Rousseau.

92

Postmodernity

Emphasizes the subjectivity of experience and maintains that the impossibility of any one form of knowledge. Advanced and refined debates over theoretical and ethical issues.

93

Anthropology as Text

Cultures can be read and deciphered for meanings as pointed out by the interpretive school. It is the representation or account of a people that required understanding or deconstruction because discrete cultures as "objects" are only apprehended at all through such accounts, which are themselves enshrined in the ethnographic text.

94

Medical Anthropology for Study Guide

Incorporates a range of approaches that variously study the objective role of biology and ecology and interpret the cultural foundations of "folk" medical institutions and practices around the world.

95

Globalization

Idea that the world is being homogenized into a global village in which the diversity of local cultures are being radically reshaped and limited through increasingly advanced and universal systems of communications and travel technology. Students of globalization also inquire how new forms of subjective understanding and reflexivity are produced as a result of these new global forms of interdependence.

96

Public Anthropology

An effort to make anthropology relevant in the world beyond universities. Applied, atheoritical, and constrained by real world considerations. A public intellectual engaged in important debates and controversies of concrete significance for the world in which he or she lives.

97

Michel Foucault

Believed that individuals and their interrelationships are determined by discourses of power and it shape relations between people at all levels in a society. All of the roles played by individuals all bear the stamp of certain kinds of relations between people in which some dominate others. Showed how power determined different social forms through history.

98

Pierre Bourdieu

Addressed similar issues about power and domination, but thought that individuals and social arrangements are created b human agents who assemble their cultures through practice or praxis. People create, reproduce, and change taxonomies that are understood to be the basis of social relations. Taxonomies are make of symbolic representations that make the world what it is for the people who live in it. Also created fields, doxa, symbolic domination, symbolic capital, and habitus.

99

Sherwood Washburn

Launched the New Physical Anthropology. Encouraged scientists to embrace the Synthetic Theory of Evolution (the synthesis of Darwinism and Mendelian genetics). The synthesis also encouraged people to stop thinking about things in terms of fixed "pure" races.

100

E.O. Wilson

Studied sociobiology and the problem of altruism in cultures when talking about natural selection.

101

Anthony F.C. Wallace

Studied the Iroquois and applied his theory of the revitalization movement. He believed that during periods of cultural crisis, a charismatic prophet rationalizes a new and more satisfying religious view for the members of the society. He also highlighted the transformative potential of human agency.

102

Post-processual Archaeology

The approach that emphasizes that there cannot be law-like approaches to cultures. Greatly influenced by Ian Hodder. Contextual--refers to Hodder's view that artifacts are embedded in a web of cultural discourse that affirms social relations and enhances the power of privileged groups.

103

Ian Hodder

Founder of post-processual, or contexual archaeology -- he believed that we could not use law-like explanations to explain cultures.

104

Transactionalism

Attempted to overcome the limitations of traditional structural-functionalism by revisiting the notion of the individual as the basic unit of social life. Also referred to as methodological individualism and focuses on the decision-making strategies adopted by individuals.

105

Fredrik Barth

Widely respected for his fieldwork in Pakistan. Believed that social life a complex series of economic transactions between individual social actors, all of whom share the same goal of maximizing their interests of gain through the strategic choices they make.

106

Sherry Ortner

Advocates for a practice-oriented approach in which such binaries as theory and action are considered.

107

Marilyn Strathern

Wrote about her dismay at recognizing feminism as subject to a tendency within sociocultural anthropology to fetishize eclecticism while also rejecting it. She draws a sharp distinction between what feminism can contribute and what it has contributed.

108

Michelle Rosaldo

Famous for her studies of the Ilongot people in the Philippines and for her pioneering role in women's studies and the anthropology of gender

109

Immanuel Wallerstein

American sociologist, historical social scientist, and world-systems analyst. His bimonthly commentaries on world affairs are syndicated.

110

Eric Wolf

Studied historical trends across civilizations and argued that individual cultures must be view in the context of global socio economic systems.

111

James Clifford

Postmodernist who advanced the idea that cultural accounts are constructed texts and that the relations between the writer, reader, and subject matter of ethnography are complex and problematic.

112

Arjun Appadruai

Globalization archaeologist. contemporary social-cultural anthropologist. In his anthropological work, he discusses the importance of the modernity of nation states and globalization

113

Lila Abu-Lughod

Third anthropology page. Talks about transnational feminism as a field of theorizing and activism that covers the world. In response, we are now going ethnography on and developing theories about feminisms as social practices in the world.

114

Robert Ardrey

New Physical Anthropology
Argued that one Australopithecus africanus killed off robustus and thought that violence was in our genes.

115

Desmond Morris

Attributed all kinds of human characteristics to evolved bipedal locomotion, including female breasts which, according to him, evolved as substitutes for female butts when men needed face to face intercourse. Other scientists thought that his ideas were part of naked apery and rejected the idea.

116

Arnold can Gennep

Speculated about the ritual process and argued that ritual involves the passage of individuals from one social state to another and that this entailed three states of separation, transition, and incorporation within the social order.

117

Robert Redfield

Developed a theoritical distinction between great tradition and little tradition cultures. [creepy stalker guy]

118

Oscar Lewis

best known for his vivid depictions of the lives of slum dwellers and his argument a cross-generational culture of poverty among poor people transcends national boundaries. Lewis contended that the cultural similarities occurred because they were "common adaptations to common problems" and that "the culture of poverty is both an adaptation and a reaction of the poor to their marginal position in a class-stratified, highly individualistic, capitalistic society

119

Paul Feyerabend

Roots of postmodernist perspective (out of three others). Philosophical anarchist who argued that there is no logical way to choose between conventional scholarly models, or paradigms because all explanations are essentially interpretations. He thought that all explanations are impossible to measure.

120

True or False? Fredrik Barth thought that individuals instead of social systems are the drivers of social process and social change.

True.

121

True of False? Despite criticisms of the approach, transactionalism's emphasis on individual cultural agents promoted a concern for studying and understanding social change within anthropology.

True

122

True of False? The globalization perspective suggests that society and culture can be reduced to being mere effects of a capitalist world-system.

False.

123

True or False? Public anthropology does not support the ideal of anthropologists as unbiased or dispassionate observers

True

124

How does Lila Abu-Lughod say about feminist anthropology and how it relates to globalization?

She says that the role of women is becoming more prominent and global because of the influences of western culture.