Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (124):
Improper or incorrect science that actively or passively supports racism
New Physical anthropology
The Name for physical anthropology committed to the synthetic study of evolution
Thinking of biological groups as homogeneous or pure when in face they are heterogeneous and mixed.
Anthropology aimed at exploring interactions between human biology and culture
A hereditarian approach to the study of human behavior, derived in part from Darwinism and employing the analytical constructs of fixed action pattern, innate releasing mechanism, and key stimulus .
Fixed Action Pattern
As conceived by human ethologists, an innate sequence of behavior released by a key stimulus of an innate releasing mechanism
Innate Releasing Mechanism
The mechanism that, when triggered by a key stimulus, releases a fixed action pattern.
As conceived by human ethologists, the device that triggers an innate releasing mechanism, thus releasing a fixed action pattern.
The scientific study of human body motion
The scientific study of human posture as a form of non-verbal communication, which is sometimes called body language.
The branch of genetics that investigates inherited contributions to behavioral differences
The product of gene action, often affected by the environment.
Variation in phenotype affected by the action of many genes
An investigation of the biological basis of social behavior using the evolutionary principles of kin selection and fitness.
In sociobiology, reproductive success via genes shared with relatives; sometimes called the biology of nepotism
In sociobiology, the measure, or result, of kin selection
Biology of Nepotism
A label for sociobiology focusing on the preferential treatment of kin.
Pertaining to xenophobia, the fear and dislike of foreigners.
An outgrowth of sociobiology that uses Charles Darwin's theory of evolution to explain aspects of human mentality and behavior as adaptations from the past.
The anthropological school associated with Clifford Geertz, with the view that culture is lived experience integrated into a coherent, public system of symbols that renders the world intelligible.
A term coined by Anthony F.C. Wallace to describe the spontaneous evolution of culture that occurs when communities experience conditions of extreme social and economic duress or marginalization.
The study of meaning, especially in literary texts, applied by interpretive and post-modern anthropologists to the study of culture.
Victor Turner's term for those symbols that can be consciously wielded in ritual as a form of technology in order to achieve particular ends.
An ephemeral psychological space in which social arrangements are subject to transformation, inversion, and affirmation.
A term used by Victor Turner to refer to the ritual fusion of individuals into a collective society.
Pertaining to the relationship between symbols and what they represent.
In the interpretive anthropology of Clifford Geertz, the process of interpreting culture as text.
In the interpretive anthropology of Clifford Geertz, the equivalent of culture, interpreted through a process of thick description.
Anthropologists who self-reflect and share criticisms of positivism
A term describing the ambition of postmodernism to understand the political and cultural contexts "hidden" behind the writing or "construction" of narratives
An adjective that expresses disenchantment with static, mechanistic, and controlling models of culture, with a consequent interest in social process and agency.
The various social roles and identities attributed to individuals and groups on the basis of their biological sex.
Development and Underdevelopment Theory
Andre Gunder Frank's theory about the systematic explotation of underdeveloped nation-states and regions by developed nation-states and regions.
Immanuel Wallerstein's theory that core nation-states are engaged in systematic exploitation of peripheral nation-states for labor and natural resources.
The Western practice of transforming non-capitalist, preindustrial economies into capitalist, industrial economies.
In world-system theory, Western nations and regions that expropriate and control resources of non-Western nations and regions; contrasted with the periphery
According to political economists, the global expansion of Western capitalism creating a world system of unequal commodity exchange.
Robert Redfield's term for cultures characterized by literacy, industrialization, and rational religions; contrasted with little tradition.
Cultures characterized by illiteracy, preindustrial economies, and "irrational" supernatural beliefs; contrasted with great tradition.
The idea that one body of knowledge is privileged over other bodies in that it has greater access to ultimate reality, or the "truth"
A term used by Karl Marx and Marxist scholars denoting a system of beliefs that influences the outlooks of individuals and groups.
A term for the capacity of one social group to impose particular beliefs or political and economic conditions upon another group.
A popular postmodern analytical strategy of reflecting on the biases and assumptions that inform one's own theories and perspectives.
The perspective that traditional values and beliefs are fundamentally uncertain, and that existence is at base nonsensical
The cross-cultural pan-historical study of sickness and health.
Someone who believes that all scientific paradigms are logically equivalent, with no logical way to choose among them.
A phrase describing the modern invention of historical events and personages, often with the goal of legitimizing contemporary political or religious ideologies by linking them directly to Antiquity
Label for radical deconstruction of some postmodern theorists, particularly those preoccupied with second-guessing their own analysis.
Discourses of Power
Phrase for the spectrum of institutions, rhetorics, and strategies employed by one group to demonite another group.
The concept that society is constructed by purposeful, creative agents who bring society to life through talk and action.
The dynamic configuration, or network, of objective relationships among social agents and positions
Term for psychological state in which all members of a community consider relations natural, including relations of social, economic, and political inequality
The tendency of dominant social groups to create and sustain a worldview in which all members of a society, including subjugated members, participate.
the body of meanings, representations, and objects held to be prestigious or valuable to a social group.
The capacity of individuals to innovate cultural forms based on their personal histories and positions within the community.
Pertaining to ethnomedicine, the anthropological study of non-Western medical practices.
The treatment of illness and disease using the knowledge and techniques of western culture.
The science-based form of ethnomedical knowledge and practice dominant in Western societies.
A phenomenon resulting from another phenomenon.
The expansion of Western institutions and lifeways into non-Western cultures and the emergence of new forms of cultural practice that are global in scope.
Marshall McLuhan's term for increasingly interconnected global society
A term popularized by Roland Robertson to describe the coexistance of globalizing and particularizing tendencies in a society.
A term suggesting the fusion of divergent cultural concepts and practices, particularly in the context of postcolonial and globalization studies.
Anthropology conducted by anthropologists working outside traditional academic settings
A euphemistic and usually pejorative term for the Academy, or universities.
Pertaining to museology, the academic discipline focusing on museum management, and cultural representation..
Cultural Resource Management
Activities that share the practical goal of protecting and preserving objects and places deemed to be of cultural significance.
A person deemed to be authoritative who renders opinions publically, frequently by way of the mass and electronic media.
The idea that differences among human beings can be accounted for primarily in terms of differential gene distribution.
The science that strives to "improve" humanity through selective breeding.
Organization dedicated to advancing the "scientific study of heredity and human differences" and is said to be tinged with biological determinism and racism.
The way that Stephen Colbert describes the implicit acceptance of a proposition where logic dictates otherwise or where there is a seeming lack of supporting evidence.
Study of cross-cultural use of plants
A body of research and theory that assumes the demise of religion in a modernizing world.
"Community" often used to designate the global diasporic Islamic "nation" a community of the faithful.
The flagship professional journal of the AAA
A distinctive body of research and theory within anthropology that seeks to better understand the historical and cultural interconnections between colonizers and the colonized.
A disparaging term used to describe unfounded assertions about the inheritance of human behavior
The quality of having more than one possible meaning or interpretation.
Victor Turner's term for a symbol with multiple, and sometimes contradictory, meanings.
Arnold van Gennep's term for the tripartite nature of ritual, involving separation from society, transition into a new social status, and a new incorporation into society.
Archaeology that considers artifacts and features to be expressions of culture, both incorporating and modifying elements of the natural world.
According to Thomas Kuhn, an intellectual framework for "normal" science, which is superseded by another paradigm in a scientific "revolution"
The deeply held cultural bias to view the male as intellectually, spiritually, and physically superior to the female.
A social group governed exclusively by males or groups of males.
Believed that social solidarity is a function of the systems of symbolic logic that connect people. Thought that social unity was problematic and should not be taken for granted. Symbols are the tools that people use to reproduce social order. Instrumental symbols, multivocal, dominant symbol, liminal periods, anti-structure, and communitas. Durkheim insights.
More emphasis on meaning than structure. Idea that the core of culture is a set of integrated moral values that preserve the correspondence of the world. Thought that lived experience is integrated in a coherent public system of symbols that renders the world intelligible. Thick Description, Text.
Insights from Max Weber.
Arose because of new progressive or radicalized political and social agendas in the 1960's. Argued that more powerful and inclusive understanding of society can only be achieved by studying the cultural representation, experiences, and practices associated with women.
Anthropology of Women
One: to be emancipatory. It was partisan and practitioners actively sought redress for imbalances created and sustained by an unjust social order that gave men and women different statuses and privileges.
Two: It attempted to expose the sins of a discipline scarred by androcentrism with respect to both the identity and interests of its participants.
Development and Underdevelopment theory and world system theory -- tenets of Marxist analysis. Dates back to Jean Jacques Rousseau.
Emphasizes the subjectivity of experience and maintains that the impossibility of any one form of knowledge. Advanced and refined debates over theoretical and ethical issues.
Anthropology as Text
Cultures can be read and deciphered for meanings as pointed out by the interpretive school. It is the representation or account of a people that required understanding or deconstruction because discrete cultures as "objects" are only apprehended at all through such accounts, which are themselves enshrined in the ethnographic text.
Medical Anthropology for Study Guide
Incorporates a range of approaches that variously study the objective role of biology and ecology and interpret the cultural foundations of "folk" medical institutions and practices around the world.
Idea that the world is being homogenized into a global village in which the diversity of local cultures are being radically reshaped and limited through increasingly advanced and universal systems of communications and travel technology. Students of globalization also inquire how new forms of subjective understanding and reflexivity are produced as a result of these new global forms of interdependence.
An effort to make anthropology relevant in the world beyond universities. Applied, atheoritical, and constrained by real world considerations. A public intellectual engaged in important debates and controversies of concrete significance for the world in which he or she lives.
Believed that individuals and their interrelationships are determined by discourses of power and it shape relations between people at all levels in a society. All of the roles played by individuals all bear the stamp of certain kinds of relations between people in which some dominate others. Showed how power determined different social forms through history.
Addressed similar issues about power and domination, but thought that individuals and social arrangements are created b human agents who assemble their cultures through practice or praxis. People create, reproduce, and change taxonomies that are understood to be the basis of social relations. Taxonomies are make of symbolic representations that make the world what it is for the people who live in it. Also created fields, doxa, symbolic domination, symbolic capital, and habitus.
Launched the New Physical Anthropology. Encouraged scientists to embrace the Synthetic Theory of Evolution (the synthesis of Darwinism and Mendelian genetics). The synthesis also encouraged people to stop thinking about things in terms of fixed "pure" races.
Studied sociobiology and the problem of altruism in cultures when talking about natural selection.
Anthony F.C. Wallace
Studied the Iroquois and applied his theory of the revitalization movement. He believed that during periods of cultural crisis, a charismatic prophet rationalizes a new and more satisfying religious view for the members of the society. He also highlighted the transformative potential of human agency.
The approach that emphasizes that there cannot be law-like approaches to cultures. Greatly influenced by Ian Hodder. Contextual--refers to Hodder's view that artifacts are embedded in a web of cultural discourse that affirms social relations and enhances the power of privileged groups.
Founder of post-processual, or contexual archaeology -- he believed that we could not use law-like explanations to explain cultures.
Attempted to overcome the limitations of traditional structural-functionalism by revisiting the notion of the individual as the basic unit of social life. Also referred to as methodological individualism and focuses on the decision-making strategies adopted by individuals.
Widely respected for his fieldwork in Pakistan. Believed that social life a complex series of economic transactions between individual social actors, all of whom share the same goal of maximizing their interests of gain through the strategic choices they make.
Advocates for a practice-oriented approach in which such binaries as theory and action are considered.
Wrote about her dismay at recognizing feminism as subject to a tendency within sociocultural anthropology to fetishize eclecticism while also rejecting it. She draws a sharp distinction between what feminism can contribute and what it has contributed.
Famous for her studies of the Ilongot people in the Philippines and for her pioneering role in women's studies and the anthropology of gender
American sociologist, historical social scientist, and world-systems analyst. His bimonthly commentaries on world affairs are syndicated.
Studied historical trends across civilizations and argued that individual cultures must be view in the context of global socio economic systems.
Postmodernist who advanced the idea that cultural accounts are constructed texts and that the relations between the writer, reader, and subject matter of ethnography are complex and problematic.
Globalization archaeologist. contemporary social-cultural anthropologist. In his anthropological work, he discusses the importance of the modernity of nation states and globalization
Third anthropology page. Talks about transnational feminism as a field of theorizing and activism that covers the world. In response, we are now going ethnography on and developing theories about feminisms as social practices in the world.
New Physical Anthropology
Argued that one Australopithecus africanus killed off robustus and thought that violence was in our genes.
Attributed all kinds of human characteristics to evolved bipedal locomotion, including female breasts which, according to him, evolved as substitutes for female butts when men needed face to face intercourse. Other scientists thought that his ideas were part of naked apery and rejected the idea.
Arnold can Gennep
Speculated about the ritual process and argued that ritual involves the passage of individuals from one social state to another and that this entailed three states of separation, transition, and incorporation within the social order.
Developed a theoritical distinction between great tradition and little tradition cultures. [creepy stalker guy]
best known for his vivid depictions of the lives of slum dwellers and his argument a cross-generational culture of poverty among poor people transcends national boundaries. Lewis contended that the cultural similarities occurred because they were "common adaptations to common problems" and that "the culture of poverty is both an adaptation and a reaction of the poor to their marginal position in a class-stratified, highly individualistic, capitalistic society
Roots of postmodernist perspective (out of three others). Philosophical anarchist who argued that there is no logical way to choose between conventional scholarly models, or paradigms because all explanations are essentially interpretations. He thought that all explanations are impossible to measure.
True or False? Fredrik Barth thought that individuals instead of social systems are the drivers of social process and social change.
True of False? Despite criticisms of the approach, transactionalism's emphasis on individual cultural agents promoted a concern for studying and understanding social change within anthropology.
True of False? The globalization perspective suggests that society and culture can be reduced to being mere effects of a capitalist world-system.
True or False? Public anthropology does not support the ideal of anthropologists as unbiased or dispassionate observers