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The superior thoracic aperture is bounded:

Posteriorly by the T1 vertebrae
Laterally by the 1st pair of ribs and their costal cartilages
Anteriorly by the superior border of the manubrium

1

The inferior thoracic aperture is bounded:

Posteriorly by the T12 vertebra
Posterolaterally by the 11th and 12th pairs of ribs
Anteriolaterally by the joined costal cartilages of ribs 7-10 forming the costal margin
Anteriorly by the xiphisternal joint

2

True (vertebrocostal) ribs

1st-7th ribs
Attach directly to the sternum through their own costal cartilages

3

False (vertebrochondral) ribs

8th-10th ribs
Have cartilages that are joined to the cartilage of the rib just superior to them; thus their connection with the sternum is indirect

4

Characteristic features of thoracic vertebrae

-bilateral costal facets (demifacets) on their bodies for articulation with the head of the ribs; atypical thoracic vertebrae have 1 whole costal facet in place of the demifacets
-costal facets on their transverse processes for articulation with the tubercles of ribs, except for the inferior 2 or 3 thoracic vertebrae
-long inferiorly slanting spinous processes

5

3 parts of sternum

Manubrium
Body
Xiphoid processes

6

Intervertebral joint type

Symphysis
(Secondary cartilaginous joint)

7

Intervertebral joint articulates with:

Adjacent vertebral bodies bound together by intervertebral disc

8

Ligaments of intervertebral joint

Anterior and posterior longitudinal

9

Joint type of Costovertebral joints of the head of ribs

Synovial plane

10

Costovertebral joints of head of ribs articulates with:

Head of each rib with superior demifacet or costal facet of corresponding vertebral body and inferior demifacet or costal facet of vertebral body superior to it

11

Ligaments of costovertebral joints of head of ribs

Radiate and intra-articular ligaments of head of rib

12

Joint type of costotransverse joint

Synovial plane

13

Costotransverse articulations

Articulation of tubercle of rib with transverse process of corresponding vertebra

14

Costotransverse ligaments

Lateral and superior costotransverse

15

Visceral pleura (pulmonary pleura)

Covers the lungs and is adherent to all its surfaces
Including the surfaces within the horizontal and oblique fissures
It cannot be dissected from the lungs

16

Parietal pleura

Lines the pulmonary cavities, adhering to the thoracic wall, the mediastinum, and the diaphragm

17

Muscles that originate at inferior border of the ribs

External intercostal
Internal intercostal
Innermost intercostal

18

Origin of transversus thoracis

Posterior surface of lower sternum

19

Origin of subcostal

Internal surface of lower ribs near their angles

20

Origin of levatores costarum

Transverse processes of T7-T11

21

Origin of serratus posterior superior

Nuchal ligament
Spinous processes of C7-T3

22

Origin of serratus posterior inferior

Spinous processes of T11-L2

23

Insertion of external intercostal

Superior border of ribs below

24

Insertion of internal intercostal

Superior border of ribs below

25

Insertion of innermost intercostal

Superior border of ribs below

26

Insertion of transversus thoracis

Internal surface of costal cartilages 2-6

27

Insertion of subcostal

Superior borders of 2nd or 3rd ribs below

28

Levatores costarum insertion

Subjacent ribs between tubercle and angle

29

Insertion of serratus posterior superior

Superior borders of 2nd-4th ribs

30

Insertion of serratus posterior inferior

Inferior borders of 8th-12th ribs near their angles

31

Innervated by intercostal nerve

External intercostal
Internal intercostal
Innermost intercostal

32

Innervation of levatores costarum

Posterior rami of C8-T11 nerves

33

Innervation of serratus posterior superior

2nd-5th intercostal nerves

34

Innervation of serratus posterior inferior

9th-11th intercostal nerves
Subcostal (T12) nerve

35

Actions of levatores costarum and serratus posterior superior

Elevates ribs

36

Actions of transversus thoracis

Weakly depresses ribs

37

Actions of external intercostal

During forced inspiration: elevates ribs

38

Sternocostal joint type

1st: primary cartilaginous joint
2nd-7th: synovial plane joint

39

Sternoclavicular joint type

Saddle type synovial

40

Costochondral joint type

Primary cartilaginous joint

41

Manubriosternal joint type

Secondary cartilaginous joint
(Symphysis)

42

Xiphisternal joint type

Primary cartilaginous joint
(Synchondrosis)

43

Contents of superior mediastinum

Superior vena cava
brachiocephalic veins
trachea
thymus

44

origin of external oblique

external surfaces of the 5th-12th ribs

45

insertion of external oblique

linea alba
pubic tubercle
anterior half of iliac crest

46

innervation of external oblique

thoraco-abdominal nerves
(anterior rami of T7-T11)
subcostal nerve

47

actions of external oblique

compress and support abdominal viscera
flex and rotate trunk

48

origin of internal oblique

Thoracolumbar fascia
anterior 2/3 of iliac crest
connective tissue deep to inguinal ligament

49

insertion of internal oblique

inferior borders of 10th-12th ribs
linea alba
pubis via conjoint tendon

50

innervation of internal oblique

thoraco-abdominal nerves
(anterior rami of T7-T11)
first lumbar nerve

51

actions of internal oblique

Compress and support abdominal viscera
flex and rotate trunk

52

origin of transversus abdominis

internal surfaces of 7th-12th costal cartilages
thoracolumbar fascia
iliac crest
connective tissue deep to inguinal ligament

53

insertion transversus abdominis

linea alba with aponmeurosis of internal oblique
pubic crest
pectin pubis via conjoint tendon

54

innervation of transversus abdominis

thoraco-abdominal nerves
(anterior rami of T7-T11)
first lumbar nerve

55

actions of transversus abdominis

Compresses and supports abdominal viscera

56

origin rectus abdominis

pubic symphysis
pubic crest

57

insertion rectus abdominis

xiphoid process
5th-7th costal cartilages

58

innervation rectus abdominis

thoraco-abdominal nerves
(anterior rami of inferior 6 thoracic nerves)

59

actions of rectus abdominis

flexes trunk (lumbar vertebrae)
compresses abdominal viscera
stabilizes and controls tilt of pelvis (antilordosis)

60

linea alba

extends from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis