Exam 3, arrhythmias and heart block blonder Flashcards Preview

Year 2 CV > Exam 3, arrhythmias and heart block blonder > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3, arrhythmias and heart block blonder Deck (31):
1

What is an AV block

delay or interruption in transmission of an impulse from the atria to the ventricles due to anatmoic or functional impairment in conduction system

2

What are major causes of AV blocks

increased vagal tone
fibrosis and sclerosis of conduction system
IHD
Cardiomyopathy and myocarditis
Congenital Heart disease
Familial AV block

3

majority of AV blocks are due to what

fibrosis and sclerosis of conduction system

4

second most common cause of AV blocks is what

Ischemica heart disease

5

What drugs can induce AV blocks

digitalis
CCB (non DHP)
beta blockers
amiodarone
adenosine

6

What surgeries can casue AV blocks

cardiac surgery
catheter ablation of arrhythmias
transcatheter VSD closure
alcohol septal ablation for HOCM
TAVr(transcatheter AV replacement)

7

What characterizing a first degree AV block on EKG

PR interval >.20 milliseconds
1 large box

8

What are the types of second degree AV block are there

Mobitz I, Wenckebach
Mobitz II,

9

What is a 3rd degree AV block

no atrial impulses reach ventricle in 3rd degree AVB

10

what is difference with HR in AV block and dissociation

block HR is slow
dissociation is VTach

11

What is the most common cardiac arrhythmia

Afib

12

What is bpm of AFib

300-600 bpm

13

how does AFib change CO

decreases filling from increased rate encroaching on diastolic filling time

14

What are the main risk factors for Afib

HTN heart disease
CHD
RF in underdeveloped countries

15

What is paroxysmal afib

AF that terminates spontaneously or with intervention within 7 days of onset
may recur with variable frequency

16

What is persistent Afib

fails to self terminate within 7 days
pharmacologic or electrical cardioversion usually required to restore Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR)

17

What is Long Standing persistent Afib

AFib that has lasted for more than 12 months

18

What is permanent Afib

persistent Afib where a joint decision has been made by the patient and clinicion to no longer pursue a rhythm control strategy

19

What group is considered low risk of AFib

"lone" Afib
15-30%
younger males
frequently familial, low risk of thrombo-embolus

20

What is recurrent Afib

90% afib patients have asymptomatic recurrent episodes lasting up to 48 hours

21

What is subclinical Afib

Afib detected in asymptomatic patients without a prior Dx. Many of these pateints have paroxysmal Afib

22

What are symptoms of Afib

palpitations, syncope, dyspnea, fatigue

23

What are preciptating causes of Afib

exercise, emotion, alcohol, holiday heart syndrome

24

What would you find on PE of Afib

mitral valve disease, especially MS, CHF findings

25

What are the two methods for Tx o f Afib

Rate control via AV blockers
Rhythym control- anti coagulate and resrote NSRhythym by meds or electrical cardioversion

26

What is Criteria for Afib risk

CHA2DS2VASc
CHF
HTN
Age >75, 2points
Diabetes
Stroke (2x)
Total possible 9 points
all 9= 15%/year

27

What is a bad sign for PVCs

syncope

28

Are PVCs a huge concern

no not really. not in healthy individuals

29

How concerned should you be if you seen PVCs in a patient with Acute Coronary Syndromes

bad prognostic sign

30

What determines prognosis of PVCs

severity of LV function

31

what is a unique symptom of PVC

Pressure R make them feel like they want to cough