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Flashcards in Exam 3 flashcards Deck (145):
1

What is air pollution?

Chemicals in the air at harmful levels.

2

Temperature Inversion

Air near the ground is cooler than the air above it.

3

Temperature inversions...

Trap gases and particulates near the ground.

4

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Human made organic compounds composed of carbon, chlorine and fluorine that had many industrial and commercial applications but were banned because they attack the stratosphere ozone layer.

5

What does CAFE stand for?

Corporate Average Fuel Economy

6

Describe the leading technological solutions for air pollution.`

1. Solar Cookers - Reduce particulate inhalation

7

Describe the leading regulatory solutions for air pollution

1. Clean Air Act
- Authorizes EPA to set permitted limits for specific air pollutants

2. Montreal Protocol

3. Coal Emissions Control
- scrubbers and filters

4. Vehicle emissions control (corporate average fuel economy or CAFE)

8

What are the main contributors to indoor air pollution?

Inefficient, poorly ventilated stoves
Biomass fuels
Particulates (PM10)
Daily inhalation (cigarettes)
Building structure and contents
formaldehyde
Radon
mold
dust
animal hair
and dander
Fuel combustion

9

Describe the major effects of air pollution

Health effects
Acid deposition
Photochemical smog
Ozone depletion

10

Great Smog disaster.

After Industrial Revolution, Factories were emitting gases and particles. Furnaces and fireplaces emitted particles, and water clings to these particles. London was heavily impacts because there was a high density of factories and homes and it was in a low lying area geographically speaking.

December 5th -9th 1952
Fog was visibility reduced to a few meters
Air contained nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, soot
Most of the city was effected
Indoor and outdoor air quality was bad
Visibility - hard to see

11

Primary Pollutants.

A harmful chemical that enters directly into the atmosphere from either human activities or natural processes.

12

Secondary Pollutants.

A harmful substance formed in the atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with substances normally found in the atmosphere or with other air pollutants.

13

Particulate matter.

Thousands of different solid or liquid particles suspended in air - huge contributors to air pollution

14

Smog.

Air pollution caused by a variety of pollutants.

15

Acid deposition.

SO2, NO2 emissions that react w/ water vapor in the atmosphere to form acids that return to the surface as either dry or wet deposition.

16

Scrubbers.

Desulfurization systems that are used in smokestacks to decrease the amount of sulfur released in the air by 90% or more.

17

Montreal Protocol.

International negotiations that resulted in a timetable to phase out CFC production.

18

What is the point of CAFE?

Determines the average fuel economy of passenger vehicles sold by each major automobile manufacturer in the USA.

19

Which of the following statements about ozone is false? Explain why is it false.

a. Component of photochemical smog
b. Absorbs UV radiation in the stratosphere
c. It is a primary air pollutant in the troposphere
d. Destroyed by CFC's

C - is it a secondary air pollutant, not primary

20

Industrial wastes

- Mining, industry, agriculture
- Greatest volume
- Most disposed on site

21

Municipal solid wastes (MSW)

- Garbage from homes, businesses, schools, etc.
- Paper, plastics, food, metals, glass, wood

22

Hazardous wastes

- Threaten human health & environment
- Toxic, reactive, ignitable, corrosive

23

What is hazardous waste?

Wastes posing threats to health, safety, environment, property

24

What are some statistics of hazardous waste?

- Toxic, corrosive, reactive, ignitable
- 1% of US wastes
- By-product of commercial, domestic, & industrial activities

25

What are sources of hazardous waste?

manufacturing
auto repair shops
dry cleaners
power generation & transmission
agriculture
hospitals
mining
waste disposal

26

E-waste and examples.

Discarded electronic devices & components

(Computers, cell phones, refrigerators)

27

Hazardous Waste Policy: RCRA

Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (1976)
- Prohibition of open dumps
- “Cradle to grave” regulation of solid and hazardous wastes

28

What are some RCRA provisions? (6)

Construction standards
Labeling
Record keeping
Inspections
Emergency plans
Employee training

29

Hazardous Waste Policy: CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980)

30

What was the point of CERLA? (3)

1. Cleanup of closed and abandoned hazardous waste sites
2. Tax on manufacturers: “Superfund”
3. Liability provisions for responsible parties

31

What are some solutions to reducing Solid and Hazardous Waste

Reuse, recycle, plastic recycling, composting, integrated waste management

32

What are the 3 categories of solid and hazardous wastes?

Industrial wastes, Municipal Solid wastes, Hazard wastes

33

What are some examples of Environmental Hazards? (6)

1. Hazardous and municipal waste
2. Pollution
3. Noise
4. Nuclear waste
5. Pesticides
6. Occupational Hazards

34

What are the two leading anthropogenic sources of primary air pollutants?

transportation & industry

35

Which legal agreement is designed to reduce chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere?

Montreal Protocol

36

Generated by vehicle emissions, temperature inversions, and gas leaks, air pollution in this city ranks among the world's worst.

Mexico City

37

Which air pollution effect is correctly linked to its cause?

acid deposition — sulfur oxides

38

The U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require:

development of automobiles with lower nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbon emissions

39

Scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators are technologies designed to remove what from industrial smokestacks?

particulates

40

Identify the true statement about the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

The cleanup is being conducted under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy.

41

If we recycled or reused all municipal solid waste that is produced in the US, how much would this reduce our total national production of solid waste?

2%

42

Which is the most successful recycling program in the U.S.?

Aluminum cans

43

Who pays for the cleanup of toxic sites in the Superfund program?

1. those who transported wastes to the site
2. those who dumped wastes on the site
3. prior owners of the site
4. current owners of the site

44

Identify the false statement about landfills.

Most sanitary landfills in operation today meet current standards for new landfills.

45

The materials in municipal solid waste that are best for incineration are:

Paper, plastics, and rubber

46

What is Water Pollution?

Physical or chemical degradation of water quality that harms human &environmental health

47

Eutrophication

Process where water bodies acquire high concentrations of nutrients

48

Dissolved oxygen (DO)

Microscopic bubbles
Improves drinking water taste
Crucial for aquatic plants & animals
BOD indicator (biological oxygen demand)

49

Hypoxia

Biotic oxygen deficiency

50

What are some sources of DO?

atmospheric diffusion, photosynthesis, aeration

51

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

The amount of oxygen needed to decompose organic material (dead plants, manure, sewage, food)

52

What can lead to high BOD?

Nitrates & phosphates

53

E-coli (Escherichia coli)

One of the 6 fecal coliform bacteria species found in animal waste and human sewage.

Most strains are harmless, some strains are multi-drug resistant

54

Fecal Coliform

Six species that are found in animal waste and human sewage

55

What is Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)

National fuel efficiency standards for cars & trucks

56

What 6 air pollutants does the Clean Air Act focus on reducing?

Lead
particulate matter
sulfur dioxide
nitrogen oxides
carbon monoxide
ozone

57

Which is not a typical characteristic of eutrophic water body?

Low microbial activity

58

Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (1976) aka RCRA

Prohibition of open dumps

59

What are some problems associated with incinerators?

Hazardous byproducts
Produces hazardous air pollutants
Produces solid waste (ash)
Chlorine-based byproducts of combustion
Produces a persistent amount of organic pollutants
Affect health
Affect air quality

60

What are some problems associated with landfills?

1. Surface & groundwater contamination
2. Methane generation
3. Long-term viability
4. Few new facilities opening
5. Expensive to close when full

61

Describe geographic and temporal trends in waste generation and recycling

1. Solid waste: highest generation in MDCs
2. The US has the highest solid waste per capita
3. US recycles ~35% of municipal waste
4. U.S.: ~70% of Ewaste ends up in landfills
5. Limited legislation & disposal options for Ewaste especially in LDCs
6. US recycles ~60% of yard waste


KEEP LOOKING

62

What is distributive justice?

Equitable distribution of environmental risks and benefits
- Hazardous & municipal waste
- Air pollution
- Nuclear waste
- Occupational hazards

63

What are some topics that are the focus of modern day EJ controversies?

It is much more than landfills & race.
They focus on...
•Industrial & agricultural pollution
•Energy
•Resource extraction
•Amenities

64

Dioxins

Any of a family of mildly to extremely toxic chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds that are formed as byproducts in certain industrial processes.

65

Integrated waste management

Combine multiple waste minimization techniques

Strategies include: regulation, taxes, credits, market prices, research

66

Basel Convention

Focused on the Control of Transboundary Wastes and Their Disposal.
- International treaty
- Combats “toxic trade”
- Adopted 1989 in Basel, Switzerland

67

What were the objectives of the Basel Convention?

1. Reduce hazardous waste generation, sound disposal management

2. Restrict transboundary hazardous waste movement except when using sound management

3. Regulatory system for transboundary movement

68

What are 3 approaches to reducing Municipal Solid Wastes?

1. Sanitary landfills
2. Incineration
3. Recycling

69

what are sanitary landfills?

Compact and bury waste under a shallow layer of soil

Most common disposal method

70

What is incineration?

Burn waste at high temps.

Reduce volumes up to 90%

71

What is procedural justice?

Equal protection and meaningful involvementof all people in development, implementation, & enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies

72

Turbidity

Measure of water clarity

73

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

IDKKK

74

Water pollution that begins at a specific identifiable location (5)

1. Industrial facilities
2. Mining
3. Oil & gas extraction
4. Military bases
5. Waste water treatment plants

75

Nonpoint Source Pollution

Pollutants that occur over a wide area and from multiple sources

76

Clean Water Act of 1972

Primary U.S. law governing water pollution

77

Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

The maximum permissible amount of a water pollutant that might adversely affect human health

78

Why does water pollution matter?

Half of all world rivers are heavily polluted and water is needed for aquatic and human life

79

How does eutrophication work?

1. Nutrient loading
2. Excessive algae growth
3. Decomposition
4. Oxygen depletion
5. Organisms suffocate & die

80

microbeads

The little beads in face washes. They get past water purification and lead to water pollution.

81

Point source pollution

Water pollution that begins at a specific identifiable location (Industrial facilities, Mining, Oil & gas extraction, Military bases, Waste water treatment plants)

82

How do agricultural chemicals lead to water pollution?

Industrialized agriculture heavily relies on chemical use; ~70% of water pollution in riversis from agriculture

83

How are pesticides related to water pollution?

Almost all major streams & rivers polluted with agricultural pesticides and they may pass through water treatment causing harm to our drinking water leading to longterm human health risks.

84

Nutrients

Natural elements essential for biological growth, maintenance, and reproduction

85

Examples or nutrients

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Magnesium, calcium, iron, silica

86

Main sources of nutrients

Fertilizers, manure

87

What is something negative about nutrients?

Environmental problems at high concentrations; leading to nutrient pollution

88

How is nutrient pollution measured?

Dissolved oxygen (DO)

89

What are dead zones?

Large areas of hypoxic conditions. Dead zones form when excess nutrients enter coastal waters and fertilize algal blooms

90

What is Sewage pollution?

Wastewater containing urine, feces

More than 99% water
Waterborne pathogens, organic content, nutrients

91

What are sources of sewage pollution?

Residences, businesses, Agriculture, Surface runoff

92

Why is sewage pollution a major concern in LDCs?

Because the lack infrastructure and water treatment

93

How do you measure sewage pollution?

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

94

Industrial pollution

Different industries generate different pollutants, contaminating different parts of the water column

95

Food processing plants, paper mills:

high BOD

96

Petrochemical plants:

Plants with hydrocarbons, synthetic chemicals, heavy metals

97

Minings contribution to industrial pollution?

heavy metals

98

Mine tailings

Material left after extraction of minerals from ore (heavy metals)

99

Acid mine drainage

High concentrations of sulfuric acid
Occurs in active & abandoned mines

100

Mining Pollution

Pollution that results form Acid mine drainage, and Mine tailings

101

Sediment pollution

High amounts of suspended soil particles

102

Problems with seeming pollution

Carries insoluble toxins into waterways
Limits light penetration
Affects benthic animals and plants
Increases water temps

103

Where does sediment pollution originate from?

Erosion:
Agricultural lands
Logging
Degraded stream banks
Overgrazed range lands
Strip mines
Construction

104

How is sediment pollution measured?

Turbidity

105

Thermal pollution

Heated water released into waterways

106

How is thermal pollution measured?

DO
Remote sensing: thermal infrared (IR)

107

Tile Drainage

Underground drainage systems (solution to water pollution)

108

Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974

Sets health-based standards for pollutants in drinking water

109

What is water treatment a solution for?

Drinking water
Sewage and industrial pollution

110

What is Wastewater Treatment a solution for?

point source pollution

111

Total Maximum Daily Loads

Max pollutant amount a waterbody can receive, & still meet water quality standards

112

Disease-causing organisms: pathogens

v

113

Emerging Diseases

Infectious disease previously unobserved in humans

114

Re-emerging Diseases

Existed in the past, recently increasing in incidence

115

What are toxic chemicals?

Chemicals causing adverse human health effects:

116

What are persistent chemicals?

Extremely stable chemicals that resist degradation by natural processes

117

Bioaccumulation

Buildup of persistent toxic substance in the body

118

Biomagnification

Increased concentration of toxic chemicals in tissues of organisms at higher levels in food webs

119

What are PCBs?

Polychlorinated biphenyls

120

Chemicals that mimic hormones

PCBs, Dioxins, DDT, Heavy metals –lead and mercury

121

Infant mortality

how many children die before 1 year old

122

All of the following are examples of nonpoint source pollution, EXCEPT?

a.) Agricultural runoff

b.) Construction sediment

c.) Industrial factories

d.) Roads

e.) All are examples.

Industrial Factories

123

Secondary water treatment:

uses aerobic microorganisms to decompose organic wastes.

124

A large amount of sewage:

generates high BOD, which lowers dissolved oxygen in water

125

Which of the following associations correctly pairs the current law with its goal for controlling water pollution?

Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) – sets uniform federal standards for public drinking water supplies

126

Which of the following is OK to dispose of in a toilet?
Household cleaners
Paint thinners
Pet waste
Unused medications
It's OK to dispose of all of these in a toilet

Pet waist

127

Escherichia coli is......

a leading indicator of sewage present in water

128

Environmental contaminants are associated with each of the following effects, except:

a.) cancer

b.) birth defects

c.) reproductive problems

d.) melaria

e.) All of these are related to environmental contaminants

Melaria

129

This process quantifies the odds that a person will have an adverse health effect:

Risk characterization

130

If a chemical with a toxicity level of 1 is mixed with a different chemical with a toxicity level of 1, the combined effect of exposure to the mixture is 1. This is an example of chemical mixtures interacting through:

antagonism

131

What has prevented the eradication of polio on a global basis?

public fear & suspicion of the safety of the polio vaccine

132

Identify the false statement:

a.) A dose-response curve shows the effect of different doses on a population.

b.) Doses lower than the threshold level will have no measurable effect on organisms.

c.) The smaller the LD50, the more toxic the chemical.

d.) A dose-response curve illustrates the inverse relationship between LD50 and acute toxicity of a chemical.

e.) The threshold level for a dose-response is the minimum dose with a measurable effect.

A dose-response curve illustrates the inverse relationship between LD50 and acute toxicity of a chemical.

133

Differences in health and health care between HDCs and LDCs are caused by all of the following factors, EXCEPT:

a.) access to immunization services for children

b.) adequate nutrition for normal growth and development

c.) average number of children a mother has

d.) average life expectancy

e.) money available for health care

average life expectancy

134

How do the main types of environmental health hazards differ?

Biological Hazards: Disease-causing organisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites)

Chemical hazards: harmful chemicals in air, water, soil, food (natural and human sources)

Cultural and lifestyle health hazards: poverty, conflict, work conditions, individual choices and habits

135

What are the main reasons for disease reemergence?

Evolution of disease toward human hosts

Antibiotic resistance

Urbanization & overcrowding

Poverty & social inequality

Growing elderly population susceptible to disease

Growth in international travel & commerce

136

Why is it difficult to link pollution and disease?

Presence may be unknown

Persistence

Many exposure pathways

Exposure may be undetected

Delayed effect

Genetics interact w/ exposure

Difficult to identify exact cause of illness

137

Why isn't risk assessment a silver bullet?

Humans can be more or less susceptible than test animals
Interactions with other chemicals possible
Children are more susceptible to chemicals

138

emerging vs. reemerging disease

emerging disease is an infectious disease previously unobserved in humans and a reemerging disease existed in the past, recently increasing in incidence

139

Persistence:

extremely stable chemicals that resist degradation by natural processes

140

Biomagnification:

Increased concentration of toxic chemicals in tissues of organisms at higher levels in food webs

141

endocrine disruptor:

glands that produce hormones to regulate metabolism, growth, sexual development and function (chemicals the mimic hormones)

142

Epidemiology:

studies effects of toxic chemicals and diseases on human populations. Historical exposure of groups of people

143

Toxicology:

studies effects of toxicants on the human body. Doses administered to animals in precise amounts, difficult to extrapolate results to humans

144

risk assessment:

probability of particular adverse effect will result from exposer

145

Precautionary Principle:

when there is uncertainty about risks of new actions or policies, the burden of proof of safety falls on those taking the action