Flashcards in Exam 3 -- Head Trauma and Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Deck (29):
True or false: traumatic brain injuries are the leading cause of death in the US for people up to the age of 45.
When a TBI occurs, there is axonal rupture from shear forces. What types of neurotransmitters are released in response?
Excitatory (glutamate, acetylcholine). This also leads to the generation of free radicals.
What rating scale, from 0 to 15, is used to rank a patient's TBI symptoms and decide whether or not they need an ER visit?
Glasgow Coma Scale
What is the name for an area of cerebral bruising with localized edema?
Contusion. This is the most common finding of a TBI.
What factors can help in determining when to do CT imaging for a TBI?
Less than 15 Glasgow score
Over age 65
Amnesia for more than 30 minutes
Comparing subdural vs epidural hematomas, which is located between the skull and the dura?
Comparing subdural vs epidural hematomas, which is located between the dura and the arachnoid?
Comparing subdural vs epidural hematomas, which involves the venous blood supply?
Comparing subdural vs epidural hematomas, which involves the arterial blood supply?
Comparing subdural vs epidural hematomas, which has a more acute onset?
Comparing subdural vs epidural hematomas, which has a slower onset?
Comparing subdural vs epidural hematomas, which has a lenticular shape on a CT scan?
Comparing subdural vs epidural hematomas, which has a lunar shape on a CT scan?
Comparing subdural vs epidural hematomas, which has the worse prognosis?
Which type of TBI is the most severe?
Diffuse axonal injury
True or false: damage due to diffuse axonal injury is not as bad as it looks on imaging.
False; it is worse than appears on imaging.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is when repeated concussions cause cumulative neurologic defects, including an increase in risk for Alzheimer's.
What is the survival rate of patients with bacterial meningitis?
What is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis?
What clinical findings might a patient with bacterial meningitis have?
Fever, HA/altered mental status, and nuchal rigidity
If you performed a lumbar puncture on a patient with bacterial meningitis, what might you find?
Elevated opening pressure, elevated WBCs
How would you treat bacterial meningitis?
IV vancomyin with ceftriaxone
What are some viral causes of aspectic meningitis?
Enterovirus, herpes simplex, HIV, WNV, herpes zoster, mumps
What are some fungal causes of aspectic meningitis?
What are some parasitic causes of aspectic meningitis?
What are some non-infectious causes of aspectic meningitis?
Encephalitis has more severe brain function abnormalities than meningitis.
What is the cause of most cases of encephalitis?
Viral (usually herpes simplex)