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Flashcards in Exam 3 Prep Deck (107):
1

-A dynamic scaffold that helps a cell maintain it’s shape and structure.
-Keeps organelles in place, and provides a system for trafficking cargo.
-Helps the cell move (by force generation) and divide (management of chromosomes and splitting during cytokinesis).

Cytoskeleton

2

3 parts to the Cytoskeleton

-A dynamic scaffold that helps a cell maintain it’s shape and structure.
-Keeps organelles in place, and provides a system for trafficking cargo.
-Helps the cell move (by force generation) and divide (management of chromosomes and splitting during cytokinesis).

3

What are the 3 types of filamentous proteins the cytoskeleton made of

Microtubules
Microfilimints
Intermediates

4

Microtubules are made of

Tublin

5

Microfiliments are made of

Actin

6

Intermediates are

tough rope like protein that gives structural support

7

Microtubules
Microfilimints
Intermediates

The Three types of filamentous proteins the cytoskeleton is made of

8

Tublin makes

Microtubules

9

Actin makes

Microfilaments

10

A tough rope like structure that gives structural support

Intermediates

11

Who is the main highway structure?

Microtubules

12

Who is the small country roads?

Microfilaments

13

Name the three motor proteins

Kinesins, Dyneins, Myosins

14

Kinesins move in the Anterograde (positive) or Retrograde (negative) Direction ?

Anterograde

15

Dyneins move in the Anterograde (positive) or the Retrograde (negative) direction?

Retrograde

16

Motor Proteins

Converts chemical energy in to mechanical energy

17

Converts chemical energy to mechanical energy?

Motor proteins

18

Colchicine, Viblastine and Taxol all...

are drugs that effect the microtuble/tubulin stability

19

Taxol effects..

stabilizes the microtubles

20

Vinblastine effects..

leads to the tubule depolymerization by aggregate the tubulin

21

Colchicine effects...

prevents the addition of tubules at the (+) end by binding to tubulin dimers

22

What Nucleotide associated with Actin?

ATP

23

What is the Nucleotide associated with Tubulin?

GTP

24

Microfilaments uses what motor protein?

Myosins

25

Microtubles use what motor proteins?

Kinesins, Dyeins

26

When the building end becomes GDP what happens?

Catastrophe, which is where it falls apart

27

There are three types of cytoskeleton elements which the motor proteins who more cargo around the periphery of the cell?
Microfilaments
Microtubules
Intermediates

Microfilaments

28

Cleave of which molecule is associated with the stability of microtubuls?
ATP
CTP
GTP
TTP

GTP

29

Sarcomere

name given to the basic unit of striated muscle, composed of sliding protein filaments of actin and myosin

30

M Line

found inside H-Zone and forms the middle sarcomere

31

H zone

Light zone in the center of the A-band where the thick filaments are not overlapped with thin filaments.

32

A- Band

Dark area which spans the length of the the THICK filament

33

I-Band

Light area around the z-line consisting of thin acting filaments not overlapped by thick filaments

34

Z-Line

from the periphery of the sarcomere where the thin actin filaments attach, it runs through the I band.

35

Sliding theory of contraction

mechanism of the muscle contraction based on the muscle proteins that slide past each other to generate movement.

36

Troponin

Calcium regulated, found in skeletal/ smooth muscles ,works with tropomyosin when calcium ions permit, causes muscle contractions

37

Tropomyosin

a muscle protein of the I band that inhibits contraction by blocking the interaction of actin and myosin Except when influenced by troponin

38

Titin

large fibrousprotein with kinase activity that extends over half the length of a sarcomere and serves as a scaffold to which myofibrils and other muscle related proteins.

39

Rigor mortis

stiffening of the body due to a lack of ATP after death.
This is caused myosin-cross bridge cycle being unable to detach

40

Myosin cross-bridge cycle

A transient connection between myosin and actin which forms the "scaffold" on which muscle contracts

41

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Membrane bound structure found within the muscle cells which is similar to the ER, the main-function is to store calcium

42

Ryanodine receptor

mediates the release of calcium ions from the scarplasmic reticulum. activation occurs with a physical coupling in the L-type Calcium channel which causes a outflow from the sarcoplasmic reticulum

43

name given to the basic unit of striated muscle, composed of sliding protein filaments of actin and myosin

Sarcomere

44

found inside H-Zone and forms the middle sarcomere

M Line

45

Light zone in the center of the A-band where the thick filaments are not overlapped with thin filaments.

H zone

46

Dark area which spans the length of the the THICK filament

A- Band

47

Light area around the z-line consisting of thin acting filaments not overlapped by thick filaments

I-Band

48

from the periphery of the sarcomere where the thin actin filaments attach, it runs through the I band.

Z-Line

49

A transient connection between myosin and actin which forms the "scaffold" on which muscle contracts

Myosin cross-bridge cycle

50

Membrane bound structure found within the muscle cells which is similar to the ER, the main-function is to store calcium

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

51

What type of muscle is your diaphram?
Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac

Skeletal

52

What does not change in length during contraction?
H zone
A band
I band
Sarcomere

A Band

53

When is your skeletal muscle strongest?

Contracted

54

Which two of the sarcomere parts change in sizeduring a contraction?

H-zone and I-Band

55

I-band and H-zone both

change size during a muscle contraction

56

Z band to Z band is equal to...

one sarcomere

57

Thin filament

Actin

58

Thick filament

bundle of myosin proteins

59

What is treadmilling?

Where it grows on the positive end, the negative end is shrinking

60

What is the term for growing on postive end and shrinking on the negative end

Treadmilling

61

Titin

Holds the sarcomere together

62

Who uses Calcium?

Troponin

63

Vesicular Transport

A Mechanism that exchanges proteins and lipids between membrane bound organelles

64

Smooth ER vs Rough ER

Smooth ER
no ribosomes
tubular
not abundant (exceptions: Liver, Steroid Glands, Kidney, muscle)

Rough ER
Ribosomes
flattened sacs
Abundant

65

The 4 functions of SER

Steroid Synthesis
Detox by cytochrome p450 enzymes
Ca2+ in the Lumen
Lipid synthesis

66

Steroid Synthesis
Detox by cytochrome p450 enzymes
Ca2+ in the Lumen
Lipid synthesis

SER

67

Function of RER

Synthesis and initial processing (glycosylation)
and folding proteins

68

Synthesis and initial processing (glycosylation)
and folding proteins

Function of the RER

69

G-Actin

Free floating Actin

70

F- Actin

Polymerized Actin

71

Which end of the microfiliament actin falls off of?

minus end

72

Where is a Lumen?
A Facing the Apical surface
B Facing the basal surface
C too little info
D Too much info

A Facing the apical surface

73

Golgi Lumen is

Inside the cell

74

A protein with sugar attached (vs a sugar with the protein attached)

Glycoprotein

75

Tubulin is associated with which nucleotide
A ATP
B CTP
C GTP
D TTP

GTP

76

Which sarcomere component does not change in the length during contraction?
A H-zone
B A-Band
C I-Band
D Sarcomere

A band

77

Ctyosolic calcium levels regulate many cellular processes. Cellular clacium is removed from the ctyosol by a vatiery of mechanisms. which of the following would not infulence CA2+ movement?

An ATPase pump

78

Cop 2 moves from _____ to the ____ and is Anterograde/ Retrograde

ER, Golgi and Anterograde

79

Cop 1 is from _______ to ______ and Anterograde/Retrograde

Golgi to ER and Retrograde

80

Why do you need to go from the Golgi to the ER?

Glycosylation, which enzymes are in the golgi to help finish.

81

Cop 1 coated vesicles are carried by.....

Kinesine

82

Cop 2 vesicles are carried by

Dyneins

83

ERGIC Stands for

Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Intermediate Compartment

84

V SNare is located...

On the Vesicle

85

T Snare is located on the

On the Target

86

Fusion between the vesicle and target membrane is mediated by

Calcium

87

4 Types of Transport Vesicles

Cop 1
Cop 2
Uncoated
Clathrin

88

Exocytosis

Fusion of Secretory Vesicle with plasma membrane

89

Constitutive PAthway

Replenishes material (Lipids, Proteins On Plasma Membrane, in extracellular matrix and cell walls

90

Regulated Pathway

Exocytosis occurs in response to a stimulus, and is mediated by changes in intracellular (Ca2+)

91

Uncaoted vesicles

Move material toward the cell surface, vesicle contents become concentrated

92

Secretory Granules

Contain specific proteins and other macro-molecules that are destined fro the secretion into the extracellular space

93

Mast Cell Degranulation

– A cellular process that releases mast cells from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells. This response is due to the binding of specific antigens on the mast cell surface receptor

94

Mast Cell

A White blood cell that is part of the immune system and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin

95

Endocytosis

Process of capturing material outside of the cell by invagination of the cells membrane forming a vesicle

96

Receptor Mediated

A process by which cells absorb endocytic cargo by the invagination of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being absorbed.

97

Clathrin Coated Vesicles

Cage-like polygon vesicles formed from triskelions used in endocytosis

98

Clathrin Triskelions

The triple spiral shape components of the Clathrin vesicles that bind to the adaptor protein complex.

99

Endocytic pathway

Process where receptor mediated endocytosis brings in a vesicle that is then sorted and recycled and some of which will create a lysosome.

100

Phagocytotic Pathway

The same as the endocytic pathway but uses non-coated vesicles.

101

Peroxisome

Cytoplasmic with PLS

102

Herterochromatin

Compacted chromatin, not ready for Transcription

103

Euchromatin

Dispersed chromatin, ready for transcription

104

Proteins that makeup the nuclear pore complex

Nucleoporins

105

Nucleoporins

Proteins that make up the nuclear pore complex

106

What traffics out of the nucleus?

mRNA, tRNA, ribosomal subunits

107

What traffics inside the nucleus?

Nuclear proteins (like histones) and ribosomal proteins. anything needed for transcription