Exam 3 Primary functions of the lower extermity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Primary functions of the lower extermity Deck (30):
1

Primary functions of the lower extremity

1. Support the weight of the body
2. Provide a stable foundation while standing
3. Locomotion

2

The pelvis consist on a 2 single bones (one on each side ) known as:

Innominate bone

3

Innominate bone articulates with:

Sacrum, femur, and the other innominate bone

4

What are the 3 parts that make up an innominate bone:

ilium, ischium and pubis

5

What line just inferior to the iliac fossa is a curved line that marks the boundary between the false and true pelvis

Arcuate line (arcuate line from each innominate bone forms what is known as the pelvic brim)

6

The superior ramus of the pubis is above the body & terminates as the:

iliopubic eminence

7

Prominent ridge on the superior ramus of the pubis is the:

Pubic pectin

8

Obturator foramen is closed by a piece of connective tissue known as the:

Obturator membrane

9

What are the boundaries for the FALSE pelvis, and what is its purpose:

Posteriorly- lumbar vertebrae
Laterally- ilium
Anteriorly- abdominal wall
Purpose: Support & protect much of the abdominal visceral

10

What are the boundaries for the TRUE pelvis, & what is its purpose?

Posteriorly- sacrum & coccyx
Laterally/ anteriorly- ilium, ischium & pubis
Purpose- this portion of the pelvis surround the birth canal in women

11

Functions of the pelvic bone:(4)

1. Protect the pelvic viscera
2. Transmit body weight to the limbs & absorb the stresses of muscular activity
3. Allow locomotion by causing pelvic bone to swing from side to side
4. Provides bony support for the birth canal (women)

12

Known as ________ _______ male & female pelvic bones differ markedly in a number of characteristics

Sexual Dimorphism

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Android Pelvis

Typical MALE pelvis

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Gynecoid pelvis

Typical FEMALE pelvis

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Anthropoid pelvis

Exaggerated MALE pelvis (more narrow)

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Platypelloid pelvis

Exaggerated FEMALE pelvis (wider)

17

Most common features of the pelvic bone to fracture:

Pubic rami
Acetabulum
Region of the sacroiliac joint
Most lateral aspect of the ilium

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-Common painful contusion injury of the soft tissue associated with the iliac crest
- They are very common in contact sports & usually result in a painful hematoma in the area of the injury

Hip Pointers

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Ossification of the pelvic bone:

-3 primary centers (ilium, ischium, & pubis)
-5 secondary centers (iliac crest, AIIS, ischial tuberosity, pubis symphysis, & center of the acetabulum)
- Completes ossification between 20 & 22 years of age

20

On the head of the femur there is a pit known as the______ ______ which is for the attachment of the _____ ____ ______

Fovea capitis
Capitis femoris ligament

21

The trochanters of the femur are connected POSTERIORLY by:

The intertrochanteric CREST

22

The trochanter of the femur are connected ANTERIORLY by:

intertrochanteric LINE

23

Ossification of the femur:

- 1 primary for the shaft
- 4 secondary for the head, Greater & lesser trochanters & the distal end (condyles & epicondyles)
- Completes by 15 -17

24

The way the neck of the femur meets the shaft of the bone, an angle is formed and is know as the:

Angle of inclination

25

Angle of inclination is the greatest at birth being:

about 145 degrees

26

Angle of inclination when person is of adult age:

about 125 degrees

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Coxa VALGA:

INCREASE is the angle of inclination, which can occur w / developmental dysplasia of the hip (congenital dislocation)

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Coxa VARA:

Decrease is the angle of inclination, which occurs in fractures of the proximal part of the femur & in the condition known as rickets, causes a mild shortening of the affected limb

29

- Fracture through the neck of the femur & are what is normally called "broken hip"
- Common is individuals suffering from osteoporosis

Subcapital fractures

30

Subcapital fractures can interrupt the blood supply to the femoral head leading to degeneration of the head, this is known as:

Avascular necrosis