Exam 3 Proteins, Amino Acids, and lipids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Proteins, Amino Acids, and lipids Deck (70)
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1

11. For the optimal diet, the recommended dietary allowance for protein (RDA) consumption is 0.8g/kg. The acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for protein consumption is 10% - 35% of calories.

 

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

C. Both statements are true.

Furthermore, whichever one is higher between the two recommendations would also be the correct choice.

2

T/F. Oils are less fattening that solid fats.

False

3

16. There are nine essential amino acids. Arginine is an essential amino acid that is used only in infants.

 

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

B. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.

There are 10 total essential amino acids. Nine for adults and one (Arginine) only for infants. See handout entitled “Amino Acids”

4

1. Proteins are comprised of 20 different amino acids 9 of which are non-essential. Of these 20 amino acids 11 are considered essential and must be obtained from diet.

 

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

D. Both statements are false.

5

A higher dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with reduced prevalence of periodontitis. You can get omega-3’s from corn, sunflower oils and tofu.

  1. Both statements are true.
  2. Both statements are false
  3. The first statement is true; the second statement is false
  4. The first statement is false; the second statement is true

C. The first statement is true; the second statement is false

 

Omega 3 (linolenic) can be found in fish oils, green leafy veggies

6

Which fatty acids contain 12 or more carbon atoms?

  1. Short chain
  2. Medium chain
  3. Long chain

C. Long chain

7

13. Marasmus is a type of PEM characterized by the skin and bones wasting away, caused by long-term protein and energy deficit.

  1. True
  2. False

A. True

8

Which type of fatty acid contains a double bond, is viscous in form and works to maintain cholesterol levels?

  1. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
  2. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
  3. Saturated Fatty Acids

A. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids

9

T/F. Nuts and cheeses are nutritious foods that should be recommended as snacks to all patients because they reduce the rate of caries.

False

10

What type of fat is found in meats, dairy, stick margarine, shortening, salty snacks, high-fat baked goods, commercial frying fats and cause an elevated LDL cholesterol level?

  1. Saturated fatty acid (SFAs)
  2. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)
  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
  4. Trans fatty acids

D. Trans fatty acids

11

  1. What are the three elements that lipids contain?
    1. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
    2. Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen
    3. Carbon, Phosphorus, Oxygen
    4. Carbon, Helium, Oxygen

A. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

12

T/F. Fat intake has been linked more frequently to cancer than any other dietary factor.

True

13

  1. Vitamin E, a fat-soluble vitamin, is an oxidant, and, to some degree, endangers the oil to which it is added.
    1. Both statements are true
    2. Both statements are false
    3. The first statement is true; the second statement is false
    4. The first statement is false; the second statement is true

B. Both statements are false

 

Vitamin E is an antioxidant

14

10. Nitrogen balance is defined as the body maintaining equilibrium between the breakdown and consumption of protein. Nitrogen balance results when the same amount of protein being excreted equals the amount consumed by food.

 

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

C. Both statements are true.

15

6.  The body is able to synthesize nonessential amino acids (NEAAs). Therefore, NEAAs are considered dispensable.

 

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

C. Both statements are true.

16

Linoleic (Omega 6) are essential fatty acids that must be obtained from the following sources.

  1. vegetable oils, such as sunflower and safflower
  2. plants oils, such as canola, olive and peanut
  3. fish, such as mackerel, tuna, and salmon

A. vegetable oils, such as sunflower and safflower

17

12. Kwashiorkor (swelling) is an acute form of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) that occurs from a lack of

  1. high-quality protein
  2. adequate calories
  3. low-quality protein
  4. A and B

A. high-quality protein

Kwashiorkor is an acute form of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) that occurs from a lack of high-quality protein despite adequate calories.

 

Symptoms include edema of the extremities, torso, and face, Fatty liver enlarges, anemia, lethargy, cracked, peeling, infection-prone skin, opportunistic infections.

18

True or False. Omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids can manage periodontitis due to anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.

  1. True
  2. False

B. False

 

Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can manage periodontitis

19

Which fatty acids contain less that 6 carbon atoms?

  1. Short chain
  2. Medium chain
  3. Long chain

A. Short chain

20

8. Sometimes a nonessential amino acid can become an essential amino acid under special circumstances.

 

  1. True
  2. False

A. True

21

18. Every amino acid contains a variety of groups including an amino group, acid group, and distinctive side group. All amino acid groups are attached to a central carbon atom.

 

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

C. Both statements are true.

22

14.  Children between 18 to 24 months are most at risk to Marasmus showing symptoms of edema, enlarged fatty liver, anemia, infection prone skin, and lethargy.

  1. True
  2. False

B. False. Children between 18 to 24 months are most at risk to Kwashiokor

23

What is the chemical structure of diglycerides?

  1. Glycerol+ two fatty acids
  2. Glycerol + one fatty acid

A. Glycerol+ two fatty acids

24

Which type of fatty acid contains 2 or more double bonds, is liquid in consistency, and can decrease serum cholesterol levels?

  1. Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
  2. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
  3. Saturated Fatty Acids

B. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

25

T/F. A product containing more unsaturated fatty acids than saturated fatty acids is a healthier food choice than one containing a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids.

True

26

21. Figure out RDA of protein. If a patient is 165 lbs.

  • Take 165 lbs and divide by 2.2 Kg = ?
  • 75 kg x 0.8 g/kg = ?

75 kg; 60g/day

27

20. Digestion is initiated by nitric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid denatures protein by uncoiling the AA chains.

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

B. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.

 

Digestion is caused by hydrochloric acid in the stomach. AA chains are further broken down by enzymes

28

4. Peptide bonds form by hydrolysis forming the byproduct of water. Peptide bonds connects the acid end of one AA chain with another AA chain.

 

  1. The first statement is true. The second statement is false.
  2. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.
  3. Both statements are true.
  4. Both statements are false.

B. The first statement is false. The second statement is true.

 

Peptide bonds are formed by condensation reactions.

29

True or False. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can manage periodontitis due to anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.

  1. True
  2. False

A. True

30

Name the functions of proteins

Growth and maintenance

Enzymes

Hormones

Fluid balance

Acid-based balance

Transportation

Antibodies

Energy and glucose