Flashcards in Exam 3 Review Deck (59):
After the pain neurons from the trigeminal ganglion synapse on the spinal trigeminal nucleus, they ascend as the ______________ (be sure to list which side it's on). Where does this synapse?
contralateral ventral trigeminothalamic tract; the ventral posteromedial nucleus
Fine-touch axons from the trigeminal ganglion synapse on the _____________.
ipsilateral chief sensory nucleus of V
True or false: some sensory information from the perioral neurons ascends ipsilaterally.
True! This is the dorsal trigeminothalamic tract.
The geniculo-calcarine tract is also known as ____________.
the optic radiation
The primary visual cortex is also known as _____________.
the striate cortex
The primary sensory neurons for the vestibulocochlear system are located in __________.
the vestibular ganglion
In the vestibular reflex, the lateral vestibulospinal tracts (which descend from the vestibular nuclei) facilitate ______________. They do so by synapsing on lower-motor neurons in the anterior horn.
the extensors of the limbs and neck
The MLF ascends from what structure (be sure to list the side)?
The ipsilateral vestibular nucleus
In which structure are the primary auditory neurons located?
The spiral ganglion
After synapsing on the cochlear nuclei, the next auditory axons synapse on ___________.
the bilateral superior olivary nuclei
What tract arises from the superior olivary nucleus?
The lateral lemniscus
The lateral lemniscus synapses on the ___________.
The inferior colliculus synapses on the ______________.
medial geniculate nucleus
True or false: the corticobulbar axons that control eye movements synapse on the contralateral nuclei.
False. Both sides!
The corticobulbar area that controls the face synapses on _______________.
both sides for forehead muscles but only the contralateral side for smiling
The hypoglossal nerve is controlled by the _____________.
The vestibular axons that terminate on the granule cells are ___________ fibers.
Fastigial axons terminate in the ____________.
The medial longitudinal fasciculus is also called the ______________.
medial vestibulospinal tract
Proprioceptive muscle sensors synapse on the _______________ and then travel up as the _____________.
ipsilateral nucleus dorsalis; ipsilateral dorsal spinocerebellar tract (just lateral to the lateral corticospinal tract)
The dentate nuclei send axons to the ________________.
contralateral red nuclei and VA/VL
Axons from the VA/VL project to the _____________.
ipsilateral motor cortex
Pallidal efferents terminate in the ________________.
VA/VL and CM
During the accommodation reflex, the _________ muscles contract.
The frontal eye field can _________________.
activate saccades directly via the reticular formation
Damage to the MLF between CN III and CN VI damages axons from the _______________.
contralateral abducens nerve; the MLF carries interneurons from the abducens nerve between the oculomotor nucleus and the abducens nucleus
A temporary inability to hear a certain frequency is most commonly due to ______________.
The early signs of vestibular Schwannomas are _____________.
intracanalicular; other symptoms – such as headache and hydrocephalus – occur late in the disease
Describe Meniere's disease.
Most often presenting in 20 - 50 age cohort, Meniere's affects usually just one ear. Symptoms include hearing loss, tinnitus, feeling of aural fullness, and vertigo.
Thought to be caused by excess endolymph. Treat with diuretics and low-salt diet.
Sensory hearing loss is caused by ____________.
things that affect the cochlea; conductive loss occurs with canal/tympanic/ossicle problems
The most common cause of conductive hearing loss is _____________.
How can otosclerosis be treated?
With stapedectomy – remodeling and fixing of the stapes bone
At what age can children get cochlear implants?
Humans detect pheromones via the ____________ system.
olfactory (the vomeronasal is defunct)
The ___________ branch of the facial nerve carries taste sensation.
True or false: filliform bumps do not have taste buds.
The principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve is analogous to the _____________.
dorsal column nuclei (because those are the nucleus cuneatus/gracilis, and both carry sensory information)
The mesencephalic nucleus is derived from ________________ cells.
What are brachiomotor nuclei?
Nuclei that innervate striated muscle that is derived from branchial arches (so CN nuclei V, VII, and the nucleus ambiguus)
The hypoglossal nucleus is anterior to the _____________.
motor nucleus of the vagus nerve
The medial lemniscus and pyramids are closest to one another in the _______.
Recall that axons in the medial geniculate nuclei originated in the ______________.
ipsilateral inferior colliculus
Learned acts are controlled by the ___________ cortex.
What motor cortex is involved in the rehearsal of planned motor activity?
The supplementary motor cortex (anterior to the primary motor cortex)
Interaural level differences are used to locate sounds greater than _______ Hz.
Spectral cues are used to localize ______ location.
Interaural time differences are first encoded by cells in the ___________. Interaural level differences are encoded in the _______________.
medial superior olive; lateral superior olive
Spectral cues are encoded in the ___________. Contralateral sound sources are coded in the ____________.
ipsilateral cochlear nucleus; contralateral inferior colliculus
In addition to being involved in mentally rehearsing a movement, the supplementary motor cortex also will cause ________________ if stimulated and sends axons to ________________.
complex movements like moving a the hand to the face regardless of its initial position; the corticospinal tract
The main difference between simple and complex cells are that ________________.
complex cells care less about the exact position of objects; they respond to a consistent object in a range of visual areas
The hypothalamus mediates ____________ via the vagus nerve.
Explain the Snellen chart numbers.
The denominator is the distance at which a normal person could see what you see at 20 feet. So if your vision is 20/60, then a normal person could see what you see at 20 feet when they're at 60 feet.
What is the normal pupil size range?
2 - 6 mm
People often tilt their heads to the opposite direction when the ______________ is lesioned.
The FEF synapses on the _________________.
Bell's palsy is a ________________ neuron disorder.
Lesions of the hypoglossal nerve cause the damaged side to ____________.
pull inward; this comes from the contralateral cortex
What is the clinical importance of the facial nerve division?
The innervation for the lower half of the face comes from the contralateral cortex, while the upper face comes from the ipsilateral cortex. Loss of just the ability to smile represents contralateral cortical damage, while loss of the entire facial muscles on one side represents a lower-motor neuron problem (such as Bell's palsy).