Exam 3 - structure, function, & disorders of the integument Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 - structure, function, & disorders of the integument Deck (85)
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1
Q

What are the layers of the skin from superficial to deep?

A
  1. epidermis
  2. dermis
  3. hypodermis
  4. dermal appendages (nails, hair, sebaceous glands, eccrine and apocrine sweat glands)
  5. blood supply (papillary capillaries)
2
Q

What are examples of primary lesions?

A

macule, papule, patch, plaque, wheal, nodule, tumor, vesicle, bulla, pustule, cyst, telangiectasia

3
Q

What are examples of secondary lesions?

A

scale, lichenification, keloid, scar, excoriation, fissure, erosion, ulcer, atrophy

4
Q

What are pressure ulcers a result of?

A

any unrelieved pressure on the skin, causing underlying tissue damage

5
Q

What are 4 causes of pressure ulcers?

A
  1. pressure
  2. shearing forces
  3. friction
  4. moisture
6
Q

What is the primary goal of pressure ulcers?

A

prevention

7
Q

What are 4 preventative techniques for pressure ulcers:

A
  1. Frequent skin assessment
  2. Repositioning
  3. Pressure reduction, removal, and distribution
  4. Elimination of moisture
8
Q

What is stage 1 pressure ulcer:

A

nonblanchable erythema of intact skin

9
Q

what is stage 2 pressure ulcer:

A

partial-thickness skin loss involving epidermis or dermis

10
Q

what is stage 3 pressure ulcer:

A

full-thickness skin loss involving damage or loss of subcutaneous tissue

11
Q

what is stage 4 pressure ulcer:

A

full-thickness skin loss with exposure of muscle, bone, or supporting structures

12
Q

What is characteristic of suspected deep tissue injury?

A

discolored intact or blister

13
Q

what is unstageable pressure ulcer:

A

full thickness loss, ulcer base covered by slough/eschar

14
Q

What are keloids?

A

elevated, rounded, and firm scars

15
Q

describe keloids:

A

claw-like margins that extend beyond the original site of injury

16
Q

what are hypertrophic scars?

A

Elevated erythematous fibrous lesions that do not extend beyond the border of injury

17
Q

What are both keloids and hypertrophic scars caused by?

A

excessive collagen formation during dermal connective tissue repair

18
Q

What are the 2 most common inflammatory disorders of the skin?

A
  1. eczema

2. dermatitis

19
Q

What are inflammatory disorders characterized by?

A
  1. pruritus
  2. lesions with indistinct borders
  3. epidermal changes
20
Q

What is the cause of allergic contact dermatitis?

A

caused by T-cell-mediated or delayed hypersensitivity

21
Q

What are the manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis?

A
  1. erythema
  2. swelling
  3. pruritus
  4. vesicular lesions
22
Q

Where does stasis dermatitis occur?

A

In the legs as a result of venous stasis and edema

23
Q

define seborrheic dermatitis

A

chronic inflammation of the skin involving the scalp, eyebrows, eyelids, ear canals, nasolabial folds, axilla, chest, and back

24
Q

What does seborrheic dermatitis cause in infants?

A

cradle cap

25
Q

What does seborrheic dermatitis look like?

A

scaly, white, or yellowish plaques

26
Q

define psoriasis

A

chronic, relapsing, proliferative, inflammatory skin disroder

27
Q

What causes psoriasis?

A

complex interactions between macrophages, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, T-helper, and regulatory T cells

28
Q

Cells do not have time to do what with psoriasis?

A

do not have time to mature or adequately keratinize

29
Q

psoriasis is characterized by what kind of appearance?

A

silvery

30
Q

define acne vulgaris

A

inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles

31
Q

define acne rosacea

A

inflammation of the skin that develops in adulthood

32
Q

What is acne rosacea associated with

A

chronic, inappropriate vasodilation resulting in flushing and sensitivity to the sun

33
Q

define lupus erythematous

A

systemic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease with cutaneous manifestations

34
Q

define folliculitis

A

infection of hair follicle

35
Q

define furuncles

A

inflammation of hair follicles

36
Q

define carbuncles

A

collection of infected hair follicles

37
Q

define cellulitis

A

infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue

38
Q

define erysipelas

A

acute superficial infection of the upper dermis

39
Q

define impetigo

A

superficial lesion of the skin caused by coagulase-positive Staphylococcus or β-hemolytic streptococci

40
Q

How is HSV (herpes simplex virus) transmitted?

A

by contact with infected saliva

41
Q

What is HSV-1 associated with?

A

oral infections or infection of the cornea, mouth, and oralabia

42
Q

What does lesions for HSV-1 appear as?

A

a rash or clusters of inflamed and painful vesicles

43
Q

What are most commonly caused by HSV-2

A

genital infections

44
Q

What is herpes zoster?

A

shingles

45
Q

what is herpes varicella?

A

chickenpox

46
Q

where does the virus for herpes zoster and varicella remain?

A

latent in original and dorsal root ganglia

47
Q

define warts

A

benign lesions caused by the human papillomavirus

48
Q

common warts are most common in who?

A

children

49
Q

Common warts are most commonly found where?

A

fingers

50
Q

Where are plantar warts most commonly found?

A

on pressure points on bottom of feet

51
Q

define dermatophytes

A

fungi causing superficial skin lesions

52
Q

define mycoses

A

fungal disorders

53
Q

define tinea

A

mycoses caused by dermatophytes

54
Q

define tinea capitis

A

scalp

55
Q

define tinea manus

A

hand

56
Q

define tinea pedis

A

athlete’s foot

57
Q

define tinea corporis

A

ringworm

58
Q

define tinea cruris

A

groin, jock itch

59
Q

define tinea unguium

A

nails

60
Q

What is candidiasis caused by?

A

candida albicans

61
Q

Where is candidasis mostly found

A

on the skin, mucous membranes, in the GI tract, and in the vagina

62
Q

What can candida albicans change from?

A

a commensal organism to a pathogen

63
Q

define urticaria

A

circumscribed area of raised erythema and edema of the superficial dermis

64
Q

what is urticaria associated with?

A

type 1 hypersensitivity reactions to allergens

65
Q

Release of what in urticaria causes endothelial cells cells of the skin to contract?

A

histamine

66
Q

What does contraction of endothelial cells cause?

A

causes leakage of fluid from the vessels

67
Q

What is a multisystem inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by Ixodes tick bites?

A

lyme disease

68
Q

What are the 3 stages that occur with the symptoms of lyme disease?

A
  1. localized infection
  2. disseminated infection
  3. late persistent infection
69
Q

What is the most common cancer in the world?

A

basal cell carcinoma

70
Q

what are characteristics of basal cell carcinoma?

A

Grows slowly, often ulcerates, develop crusts, and is firm to the touch

71
Q

What is a tumor of the epidermis

A

squamous cell carcinoma

72
Q

what is the second most common human cancer?

A

squamous cell carcinoma

73
Q

true or false: squamous cell carcinoma can be in situ or invasive, but they rarely invade surrounding tissue

A

true

74
Q

define cutaneous melanoma:

A

malignant tumor of the skin originating from leanocytes

75
Q

what is the most serious skin cancer?

A

cutaneous melanoma

76
Q

define kaposi sarcoma:

A

vascular malignancy associated with immunodeficiency

77
Q

What is kaposi sarcoma associated with?

A

human herpesivurs-8

78
Q

What does kaposi sarcoma look like?

A

pruritic, painful, purplish-brown lesions

79
Q

define alopecia

A

loss of hair from the head or body

80
Q

define androgenic alopecia

A

localized hair loss occurring in 80% of men

81
Q

define female-pattern alopecia

A

progressive thinning and loss of hair over the central part of the scalp

82
Q

As we age what does the skin become?

A

thinner, drier, wrinkled, with changes in pigmentation

83
Q

What is there a shortening an decrease in number as we age?

A

capillary loops

84
Q

What are there fewer of as far as 2 cell types?

A

melanocytes and langerhans cells

85
Q

Which 3 glands atrophy as we get older?

A
  1. sebaceous
  2. eccrine
  3. apocrine glands