Exam #3: Theory and Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #3: Theory and Research Deck (41):
1

Define theory

Nursing theory is "a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements the describe a certain view of nursing phenomena (observable occurrences) from which to describe, explain, or predict outcomes"

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Purpose of Theories (4)

Provides a framework on which to build new nursing knowledge
Assists with reasoning, critical thinking, and decision making
Helps guide practice to produce quality outcomes
Nursing needs to be evidence based from research

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Types of Theories in Nursing

Grand Theory
Mid-Range Theory

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Grand Theory

most comprehensive, applying to the entire domain of nursing

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Mid-range Theory

narrower focus, more concrete, targets specific practice questions

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Metaparadigm of Nursing

Major components of Grand Nursing Theories:
--person
--health
--environment
--nursing

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Nursing Theorists

Dorothea Orem
Martha Rogers
Sister Callista Roy
Jean Watson

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Dorothea Orem

Self-Care Model:
--comprised of 3 different theories
--people have a need to maintain self-care and when unable, nursing can come in and assist

9

Martha Rogers

Unitary Human Being:
--a person is a unified energy field continually interacting with the environment and the nurse can balance the energy between the environment and man

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Sister Callista Roy

Adaptation Model:
--people are an adaptive system adapting to behavior, nursing can assist person adapt and bring health back to full benefit

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Jean Watson

Human Caring:
--caring is a universal-social care and the nursing provides caring through humanistic actions

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Mid-Range Nursing Theories

More testable than Grand Theory
Health promotion
Uncertainty
Quality of nursing care
Hardiness
Pain management
Family care-giving

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Classifying the Sciences

Pure
Applied

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Pure Science

Formal (mathematics, logic)
Natural (physics, chemistry, biology, physiology)
Psychosocial (psychology, sociology, economics)

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Applied Sciences

Engineering
Aeronautics
Medicine
Agriculture
Nursing

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Nursing Science

A coherent body of knowledge composed of research findings and tested theories systematically developed for the discipline of nursing

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Differentiating Science and Research

Science is a product (i.e.: a discrete body of knowledge)
Research is a process and the tool by which science is created

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Classifying Research

Pure Science Research
Applied Science Research
Translational Research

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Pure Science Research

Work done in the pursuit of new knowledge

No ideas in mind when starting research; may be testing existing theory or trying a new technique

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Applied Science Research

Creating new knowledge for a specific purpose

New inventions and new processes, medical research geared towards the development of new drugs, instrumentation

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Translational Research

Takes applied research findings to the healthcare setting

Gives us evidence-based practice nursing that is necessary to promote quality outcomes for patients

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Types of Research Methods

Quantitative
Qualitative

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Quantitative Research

A formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world
--deals with numbers; data you can collect

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Qualitative Research

Systematic interactive, subjective approach to describe life experiences and give them meaning
--subjective experiences; what patient tells you (their feelings and descriptions)

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The Research Process - Conceptual Phase

1. Defining and delimiting the problem
2. Reviewing the literature
3. Develop the theoretical framework
4. Formulating the research hypothesis or question

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The Research Process - Design and Planning Phase

1. Research design: experimental or non-experimental
2. Identifying the population to be studied and sampling plan: how will you access the patients in your study?
3. Specifying data collection methods: who, what, when, where, how; reliability and validity
4. Funding and Permission: NINR under NIH provides research dollars for research; IRB
5. Pilot Study: testing procedures, measures

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The Research Process - Empirical Phase

1. Collecting the data: quality, accuracy, ethical issues
2. Preparing data for analysis: storage of data (confidentiality), coding, accuracy

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The Research Process - Analytic Phase

1. Analyzing the data: statistical consultants
2. Interpreting results: critical review of work, relating findings to theory, confirmation or rebuttal of existing literature; conclusions and implications for future research, education, and practice

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The Research Process - Dissemination Phase

1. Communicating Findings: conferences, journals, books, media
2. Utilizing findings: changing practice

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Translational Research Process

1. Defining the question
2. Collecting evidence to answer question
3. Formal evaluation of evidence gathered
4. Choosing a solution
5. Integration of evidence into practice setting
6. Evaluation of process

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Levels of Evidence

Levels 1-7

Research is a part of every professional registered nurse's role

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Level 1

Ideas, editorials, letters, and opinion papers

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Level 2

case reports, case studies and reports of unusual happenings

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Level 3

information based on laboratory studies

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Level 4

information based on animal studies

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Level 5

small short studies involving human subjects (pilot studies)

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Level 6

studies involving human subjects with increasing levels of complexity, scope, and rigor (systematic research reviews, research-based protocols, and clinical practice guidelines)

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Level 7

clinical trials (gold-standard)
Level 7 is the highest level!!

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What are the major components of grand nursing theories?

Person
Health
Environment
Nursing

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What phase of research involves collecting data and preparing data for analysis?

Empirical Phase

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What is part of every professional RN's role?

Research