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1

North America is made up of 3 different types of landforms- what are they, and can you describe/define them?

Shield- large area of Precambrian rock that forms the core of a continent

Highlands- areas of high elevation containing mountains and plateaus

Lowlands- areas of low elevation containing plants and hills

2

Tributary

River or stream flowing into a larger River or lake
Ex) the Illinois River

3

River Mouth

End of a River, lowest point of a River, where the dirtiest water is

4

River source

Start of a River, beginning, where there is the freshest water

5

Delta

Area of low, flat land (sometimes in triangle shape) where a River divides into several smaller rivers before flowing into the ocean
Ex) Mississippi delta

6

Drainage Basin

a low bowl shaped area that other bodies of water flow into
Ex) Hudson's bay

7

Continental Divide

Division between drainage basins
Ex) mountains

8

Watershed

Land where freshwater is, draining into drainage basins.
Ex) Mississippi River water shed

9

Map Projections, list and describe.

Mercator - this map projection maintains accurate compass bearings between points, but greatly distorts size of land masses, particularly at the poles

Winkel Tripel -provides the best balance between size, shape, distance, and direction between the real world and a map projection

10

List and describe the parts of a map

1. Title- area shown, topic/purpose/focus
2.Legend- explains symbols and colours
3.Scale- compares difference between points on a map with actual distance between those points on earth
4.Date of publication- indicates how recent the info is
5.Direction- represented by direction arrow/symbol or longitude and latitude
6.Borders- set the map apart from other info

11

Latitude Lines

These lines run east to west, yet they measure North or South of the Equator

12

Scale

Compares difference between points on a map with the actual difference between points on earths surface

13

Small Scale Maps

These maps show small detail of a larger area

14

Large scales maps

These maps show big detail of a smaller area

15

Topographical Maps

Large scale map showing both natural and human made features

16

Compass Bearing

Degrees on a compass, measured in clock-wise direction from 0degrees North to 360degrees

17

Compass Point

Direction on a compass, such as North, south

18

North, East, South, West

The cardinal directions

19

GPS

A system which uses 3 satellites to triangulate exact locations on Earths surface

20

Time zone

Division of earths surface, usually extending across 15 degrees longitude, that establishes a uniform time

21

Compass rose

This lovely geometric design on a map clearly shows the main directions

22

International Date Line

Line that generally follows the 180degree line of longitude where one day ends and the next begins.

23

Prime Meridian

An imaginary line through Greenwich England dividing the globe into an Eastern and Western Hemisphere

24

GIS- geographic information systems

Integrated software package for the input, management, analysis, and display of spatial info

25

Landform Regions in North America

1.Canadian Shield
2.Rocky Mountains
3.Appalachian Highlands
4.Pacific Ranges
5.Western Plateaus, Ranges, & Basins
6. Central American Highlands
7.Costal Lowlands
8.Interior Plains & Lowlands
9.Caribbean Islands

26

Equator

Imaginary line around the earth dividing it into a northern and Southern Hemisphere

27

Standard Time

Every place within a time zone has the same time, which is referred to as standard time

28

Longitude Lines

Lines that measure distance east and west of the prime meridian, vertical

29

Representative Fraction (RF) scale

Scale on a map given as a ratio of distance on the map to distance on the ground, such as 1:500,000.
Never uses units. Only a ratio.

30

How many main 1 hr time zones are there on earth ?

24

31

How many degrees wide are each of the time zones?

15 degrees

32

Where is the Peace Tower located?

Parliament Buildings in Ottawa

33

As one moves ________ on a map the time will get earlier.

West/ right

34

Turning cm into km involves moving the decimal __ places to the left.

5

35

Alpha Numeric Grid Location

A symbol that uses letters and numbers to describe where a place is located on the grid of a map. The letter and number represent a point on a grid.

36

Cartographer

Map maker

37

Turn 1:50,000 into a direct statement scale.

1 cm is equal to 0.5 km in the real world.

38

1:10,000 into a direct statement scale

1 cm is equal to .1 km in real life.

39

1 cm is equal to 120 km in real life turn into RF scale

1:12,000,000

40

Direct statement scale

Words are used to describe the relationship between a distance on a map and a specific distance on earths surface

41

Human factors affecting production and use of various types of food

1.genetically modified organisms
2. Fertilizers
3.herbicides, insecticides
4.machinery

42

Grid system

A pattern of regularly spaced horizontal and vertical lines forming squares on a map, chart, or even a picture

43

Coordinates

Any set of two or more numbers used to determine the position of a point, line, or location on a map

44

What type of farming would 1280 acres of barley grown in souther Manitoba be classified as?

Cash cropping extensive

45

What type of farming would 50 acres of Vineyard in the wine region of niagara on the lake in southern Ontario be classified as?

Intensive/cash cropping

46

What type of farming would a CAFO be classified into?

Intensive/ cash cropping

47

What type of farming- a herd of 1000 free range cattle, which mainly eat grass on a fenced in prairie

Cash cropping extensive

48

What type of farming- a family's 4 acre garden in Sierra Leone

Intensive/subsistence

49

The way we eat has changed more in the past 50 years than in the previous _____ years.

10,000

50

The modern American supermarket has on average ________ products.

47,000

51

McDonald's is the largest purchaser of _________ & _________.

Potatoes and beef

52

In the 1970s the top 5 beef packers controlled only about 25% of the market. Today the top 4 control about _____% of the market.

80%

53

Chickens in modern times are grown ____ as big in _____ the time as compared with 60 years ago.

Twice/half

54

Chickens must also be _______ to aid in the slaughtering process.

Uniform in size

55

"So much of our industrial food turns out to be clever rearrangements of _________."

Corn

56

CAFOS are.....

Responsible for an increase in E.Coli in beef.
Petroleum dependent farming operations
An example of intensive farming
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

57

Why is it that you can buy a double cheeseburger for 99 cents and you can't even get a head of broccoli for 99 cents?

Beef is fed governmentally subsidized corn
Tax dollars are used to cheapen the price of commodity crops
We have skewed our taxation to cheapen bad calories.

58

Smithfield processing plant in tar hill kills ______ per day.

32,000 hogs

59

Large companies like Pepsi, Kraft, and Kellogg's don't grow organically, they grow by _________.

Acquisition

60

What does the Monsanto company do?

Research and develop seeds
Have 75 employees on hire to persecute farmers on their black list
Work with GMOs
Hold patents on seeds

61

To bring a cow to slaughter is _______ gallons of oil.

75

62

Selective breeding

Process of developing specific plant or animal species to increase yields, improve hardiness or pest resistance

63

Subsistence farming

For your family

64

Cash cropping

For money

65

Extensive

large area, less work, crop farm

66

Intensive

Small area, more work, animal farm

67

Transgenic Crops/Animals

Created when biotechnologists move desirable genes from one organism to another

68

Malnutrition

A condition in which health is harmed by an unbalanced diet

69

Starvation

Extreme form of hunger in which the body begins to consume its own proteins, and resultingly looses mass

70

Sustainable farming

Word describing agricultural production that does no harm to its environment.

71

Subsistence farming

Growing crops and livestock to meet immediate needs for families.

72

Whole apple

Earth

73

3/4 Apple

Oceans

74

1/4 Apple

Land

75

1/8 Apple

Inhospitable land to people & unarable

76

1/8 Apple (2)

Where people live

77

3/32 Apple

Habitable, unarable

78

1/32 Apple

Arable

79

1/32 Apple (peel)

Soil

80

The funk family farm raises grain, alfalfa, and corn on land that was once;

A short grass prairie

81

Irrigation

Moving water for farming

82

Aquifer

Underground water supply full of gravel, rocks, sand

83

Name several states in which the "Ogalalla Aquifer" can be found

South Dakota
Nebraska
Colorado
Texas
Oklahoma
New Mexico
Kansas
Wyoming

84

The Ogalalla aquifer is currently being used up __ times faster than it is being replenished.

25

85

What will this mean for the future of this environment?

Lack of successful crops

86

A dryly do farmer needs _______ the amount of land as an irrigating farmer to earn the same income.

4 times

87

What was the effect of having central pivot sprinklers?

Watering more land evenly, hilly land

88

Name other types of irrigation

Drip
Flood
Central pivot

89

Pros of GMOs

-grow faster
-resist disease
-ex) cow, produce more milk on less feed
-ex) pigs more feed efficient, produce leather meat
-cancer research

90

Cons GMOs

-may lead to the creation of "superbugs" resistant to the effects of pesticides
-"superweeds" resistant to herbicides
-royalties and technical fees to farmers who use them
-more hybrid seeds have to be bought
-can disrupt the natural environment of organisms
-safety is questionable

91

Population Density

=population / area (km2)

92

Low density residential land use

Where land value is low

93

High density residential land use

Where land is more costly

94

Two factors that affect residential density?

Cost
Neighbourhood

95

Three different major types of roads

Expressways- largest capacity roads
Arterial roads- carry moderate amounts of traffic quickly over short distances
Travel Paths- smaller and narrower

96

Low order goods

Convenience store, inventory such as candy bars, newspapers, milk, bread, lottery tickets

97

Middle order goods

CDs, calculators, clothing

98

High order goods

Items purchased infrequently, such as a car/ something expensive

99

Local service centre

Corner stores providing low order goods ie) redi mart

100

Neighbourhood plazas and ribbons

Businesses located in long strips, local people and drive by customers. Comparison shop.

101

Community shopping centres (mall)

Major street intersections, large cities. Shopping needs usually always satisfied. Department stores located on either sides as anchors for the mall.

102

Regional shopping centre (mall)

Have stores that can be found in smaller shopping centres as well as special stores that require high threshold population.

103

Central business district

Downtown, greatest concentration of tallest buildings. Office space. Financial, retail, entertainment, hotel use.

104

Four types of industrial land uses

CBD industries
Ribbon industries
Suburban industrial parks
Suburban industry parks

105

How do land values affect land use?

Land values are highest in areas in the city that are most accessible. CBD- highest land values. Also high along major transportation routes. Lots for new houses values increasing.

106

The healthiest cities are....

In a constant state of flux, more constant change

107

Digging in London, to build underground train systems, workers came across

Fragment of roman roof tile from 50 A.D.

108

Hoards of people moved to cities in the 18th century as a result of the

Industrial Revolution

109

London's initial construction of underground mass transit began in this year. Which other 2 large cities followed suit, according to the film?

Year: 1858
Cities: New York and Paris

110

Who is generally credited with the invention of the light bulb? What does Canadian history have to say about this ?

Thomas Edison
Evans and Woodward

111

How does the advent of electricity change life and the character of cities ?

Night life
Night shifts
Can't see stars
Transportation
Sleep patterns

112

Who were the first people to move water in a systematic way? What did they use to move it? How much water did they move? When did this begin?

Romans
Used gravity, pushed water along aqueducts
85,000,000 gallons per day

113

What year were the two main aqueducts in New York made?

1885
1928

114

What significant sewage technology develops in the mid 19th century? What is significant about the year 1858 in London's House of Commons?

Flushable toilet
Terrible stench, workers had to leave

115

In digesting nutrients out of sewage, our alley is
______? What is given off in this process?

Bacteria
Methane

116

How many flushes per second are there in London from 2.5 million people?

10,000

117

Cities are often developed in one of two ways. Name and describe these two.

Natural organic- medieval city
Planned

118

What 3 facts can you recall about the city Teotihuacan ?

First huge urban development
Orthogonal
Centre of universe where time began

119

What must a city do to avoid flaring up and dying according to the film?

Respond to its populations needs, adaptation

120

Some future concerns cities of the future will need to address in order to remain healthy

Clean water
Overpopulation
Food supply
Disease
Virus
Infection
Transportation
Pollution
Technology

121

In the 14th century, play killed off approx ____% of the population.

50

122

2 technological developments that allowed skyscrapers to be built?

Stronger lighter steel beams
Elevator

123

Size and age of Woolworth Building NY

1913
58 stories high

124

Two post skyscraper events which slow and stop large urban building projects in the 1930s and 1940s?

Depression
World War 2

125

WW2 trend in city development? How are residential areas designed differently? Which president had a say in this?

Interstate program
Eisenhower
Robert Moses

126

In moving traffic around a city, what means of transportation is oftentimes largely not considered?

Pedestrians, bikers, trains
"Verazanno bridge"

127

How are industry, economy, and health related in this part of the film?

Income-->success--> tax
Industry-->fail--> no tax

128

How have computers changed the way traffic flows?

Traffic light control monitors
Re route around accidents

129

Portland

Tore up a freeway that ran through the city
Controversy in legislature
Creation of Portland development system
Public parks out of garages
Affordable riverfront property
Success known around world
Reinvest money in rapid transit

130

Noteworthy things about Brasilia

Capital of country
Lead country into techno future
Modern new era
Built in 5 years
100s of roads built 40,000 ppl labour
Shape of jet plane
No neighbourhoods or street names only sectors

131

What does a city need to be sustainable, viable, and thrive?

Accessible, mass transit, meet everyone's needs

132

The only significant water in the west comes from the

Colorado river

133

The Colorado river was unusable by human beings until the building of the ________.

Hoover dam

134

Seven states that share the water of the Colorado river?

Utah
Wyoming
Colorado
New Mexico
Nevada
California
Arizona

135

_______ per capita water use is among the highest in the country.

Las Vegas'

136

Some ways we can conserve water?

Flush less
Shorter showers
Don't pour anything in water
Use dishwater once a day
Non drinkable water for lawns
Don't water the lawn
Different agriculture types
Reuse water
Less resorts

137

Why are landfills problematic for watersheds?

They're contaminating the water.

138

Describe Toxic Alley

Toxic dumps litter the landscape
Allow chemicals to leak into underground streams
Contamination
43 toxic hotspots located here
DCB, Dioxin

139

Why did the families of Love Canal make news?

Health conditions; arthritis, tumours, cancer rates, she can never have children again, 22,000 tones toxic waste, hysterectomy

140

What is dioxin?health concerns?

A by-product of paper bleaching, insecticide, messes with hormone levels, causes cancer.

141

How can we conserve or protect our water in our own environment in southern Manitoba ? List at least 5

Don't pour toxic chemicals in water
Promote healthy ecosystems
Use less water
Don't litter
Water lawn/ outdoor plants early or late in the day

142

Urban sprawl

Low density development surrounding a city

143

Mass transit

An urban transportation system capable of moving a large number of people in and around a city.

144

Cultural diffusion

Outward spread of knowledge and influence from a large centre

145

Basic industry

Activity that brings money to a community

146

Non basic industry

Activity that circulates money from within a community

147

Threshold population

Minimum number of customers required for an urban service to exist.

148

Transportation hub

City that is in a position to be a major transportation centre.

149

Hinterland

Area around a town that trades with a town

150

Infrastructure

A system of public works such as schools, libraries, bridges, roads, and sewage/ water systems for example.

151

Industrial city

City that grows around an industry

152

Economic base

All functions and activities on which a city depends for the bulk of its financial existence

153

Resource based city

City that exists because of s useful natural commodity located nearby

154

Land use zoning

How urban, suburban, or rural land is and can be used over an areas ie) parks, housing, agriculture

155

Transect

Line through a community along which land use or other data are analyzed.

156

Census tract

Smallest urban area used for census data collection

157

Who was Jane Jacobs and what did she write

Urban planner
The death and life of great American cities

158

Unique about naheed nenshi?

Canada's first Muslim mayor
Deep understanding of urban issues
Public transit his preferred choice
Wants to completely transform Calgary

159

3 D's?

Density
Diversity
Sense of Discovery

160

Spot intensification

Emphasis of what goes around a certain area , increase density

161

What are some of nenshi's ideas that he would like to implement in Calgary?

Develop unused downtown lands
Spot intensification residential neighbourhoods
High rises around transit stops and redevelop low rise strip malls into mud rise retail and residential buildings
Build smarter suburbs

162

Conventional energy source

Well established source of energy such as oil, natural gas, coal, hydro- and nuclear energy

163

Alternative energy source

Non conventional energy source such as solar, wind, and biomass energy

164

Hydroelectricity- Pros

1. Plants are cheap to operate since no fuel to buy
2. Does not produce air pollution
3. Renewable resource
4. Reservoir can be used for fishing and boating

165

Hydroelectricity- Cons

1.plants very costly to build
2. Suitable sites often far from areas where electricity is needed
3. Building of dams requires flooding of low lying areas, which destroys everything in those areas and causes the release of dangerous chemicals
4. Significantly affects the lives of people who live in the flooded areas

166

Thermal-electricity- pros

1. Plants can be built where electricity is needed or where fuel is cheaply available, shorter transmission lines needed
2. Plants less expensive to build.

167

Thermal electricity- cons

1.fuel costs high
2. Non renewable resources
3.contributes to global warming
4. Acid rain

168

Nuclear electricity pros

1. Plants can be built where energy is needed, transmission costs are low
2. Operating costs are low
3.canada has an abundant supply of uranium
4. No air pollution

169

Nuclear electricity cons

1. Construction costs high
2. Radioactive materials very hazardous to human health
3. Waste products from the plants remain dangerous for 100,000 years
4. Plants will have to be rebuilt or replaced at an enormous cost

170

Primary industry

Industry that deals with the production of primary products such as minerals that are mined or quarried, or agricultural product harvested in its raw state

171

Secondary industry

Industry dealing with manufacturing or construction

172

Tertiary industry

Industries that provide service rather than goods

173

Quaternary industry

Highly specialized (usually expensive) knowledge based technological and support services

174

Multiplier effect

Is the idea that non basic industry will succeed if basic industry is thriving, is also known as the snowball effect

175

Carbon footprint

Phrase used in considering the total greenhouse gas emissions generated by an event, organization, or individual.

176

Top 3 energy uses in Canada?

Oil
Natural gas
Electricity

177

How does hydroelectricity generate power?

Uses the force of water moving from a higher to a lower elevation to drive the electric generator

178

How does thermal energy generate power?

Steam, rather than moving water, is used to turn turbines which in turn causes generator to turn

179

How does a nuclear plant generate electricity?

Heat comes from radiatoactive breakdown of uranium atoms. Heat is used to boil water which produces the steam that turns the turbines