Flashcards in Exam Deck (179):
North America is made up of 3 different types of landforms- what are they, and can you describe/define them?
Shield- large area of Precambrian rock that forms the core of a continent
Highlands- areas of high elevation containing mountains and plateaus
Lowlands- areas of low elevation containing plants and hills
River or stream flowing into a larger River or lake
Ex) the Illinois River
End of a River, lowest point of a River, where the dirtiest water is
Start of a River, beginning, where there is the freshest water
Area of low, flat land (sometimes in triangle shape) where a River divides into several smaller rivers before flowing into the ocean
Ex) Mississippi delta
a low bowl shaped area that other bodies of water flow into
Ex) Hudson's bay
Division between drainage basins
Land where freshwater is, draining into drainage basins.
Ex) Mississippi River water shed
Map Projections, list and describe.
Mercator - this map projection maintains accurate compass bearings between points, but greatly distorts size of land masses, particularly at the poles
Winkel Tripel -provides the best balance between size, shape, distance, and direction between the real world and a map projection
List and describe the parts of a map
1. Title- area shown, topic/purpose/focus
2.Legend- explains symbols and colours
3.Scale- compares difference between points on a map with actual distance between those points on earth
4.Date of publication- indicates how recent the info is
5.Direction- represented by direction arrow/symbol or longitude and latitude
6.Borders- set the map apart from other info
These lines run east to west, yet they measure North or South of the Equator
Compares difference between points on a map with the actual difference between points on earths surface
Small Scale Maps
These maps show small detail of a larger area
Large scales maps
These maps show big detail of a smaller area
Large scale map showing both natural and human made features
Degrees on a compass, measured in clock-wise direction from 0degrees North to 360degrees
Direction on a compass, such as North, south
North, East, South, West
The cardinal directions
A system which uses 3 satellites to triangulate exact locations on Earths surface
Division of earths surface, usually extending across 15 degrees longitude, that establishes a uniform time
This lovely geometric design on a map clearly shows the main directions
International Date Line
Line that generally follows the 180degree line of longitude where one day ends and the next begins.
An imaginary line through Greenwich England dividing the globe into an Eastern and Western Hemisphere
GIS- geographic information systems
Integrated software package for the input, management, analysis, and display of spatial info
Landform Regions in North America
5.Western Plateaus, Ranges, & Basins
6. Central American Highlands
8.Interior Plains & Lowlands
Imaginary line around the earth dividing it into a northern and Southern Hemisphere
Every place within a time zone has the same time, which is referred to as standard time
Lines that measure distance east and west of the prime meridian, vertical
Representative Fraction (RF) scale
Scale on a map given as a ratio of distance on the map to distance on the ground, such as 1:500,000.
Never uses units. Only a ratio.
How many main 1 hr time zones are there on earth ?
How many degrees wide are each of the time zones?
Where is the Peace Tower located?
Parliament Buildings in Ottawa
As one moves ________ on a map the time will get earlier.
Turning cm into km involves moving the decimal __ places to the left.
Alpha Numeric Grid Location
A symbol that uses letters and numbers to describe where a place is located on the grid of a map. The letter and number represent a point on a grid.
Turn 1:50,000 into a direct statement scale.
1 cm is equal to 0.5 km in the real world.
1:10,000 into a direct statement scale
1 cm is equal to .1 km in real life.
1 cm is equal to 120 km in real life turn into RF scale
Direct statement scale
Words are used to describe the relationship between a distance on a map and a specific distance on earths surface
Human factors affecting production and use of various types of food
1.genetically modified organisms
A pattern of regularly spaced horizontal and vertical lines forming squares on a map, chart, or even a picture
Any set of two or more numbers used to determine the position of a point, line, or location on a map
What type of farming would 1280 acres of barley grown in souther Manitoba be classified as?
Cash cropping extensive
What type of farming would 50 acres of Vineyard in the wine region of niagara on the lake in southern Ontario be classified as?
What type of farming would a CAFO be classified into?
Intensive/ cash cropping
What type of farming- a herd of 1000 free range cattle, which mainly eat grass on a fenced in prairie
Cash cropping extensive
What type of farming- a family's 4 acre garden in Sierra Leone
The way we eat has changed more in the past 50 years than in the previous _____ years.
The modern American supermarket has on average ________ products.
McDonald's is the largest purchaser of _________ & _________.
Potatoes and beef
In the 1970s the top 5 beef packers controlled only about 25% of the market. Today the top 4 control about _____% of the market.
Chickens in modern times are grown ____ as big in _____ the time as compared with 60 years ago.
Chickens must also be _______ to aid in the slaughtering process.
Uniform in size
"So much of our industrial food turns out to be clever rearrangements of _________."
Responsible for an increase in E.Coli in beef.
Petroleum dependent farming operations
An example of intensive farming
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
Why is it that you can buy a double cheeseburger for 99 cents and you can't even get a head of broccoli for 99 cents?
Beef is fed governmentally subsidized corn
Tax dollars are used to cheapen the price of commodity crops
We have skewed our taxation to cheapen bad calories.
Smithfield processing plant in tar hill kills ______ per day.
Large companies like Pepsi, Kraft, and Kellogg's don't grow organically, they grow by _________.
What does the Monsanto company do?
Research and develop seeds
Have 75 employees on hire to persecute farmers on their black list
Work with GMOs
Hold patents on seeds
To bring a cow to slaughter is _______ gallons of oil.
Process of developing specific plant or animal species to increase yields, improve hardiness or pest resistance
For your family
large area, less work, crop farm
Small area, more work, animal farm
Created when biotechnologists move desirable genes from one organism to another
A condition in which health is harmed by an unbalanced diet
Extreme form of hunger in which the body begins to consume its own proteins, and resultingly looses mass
Word describing agricultural production that does no harm to its environment.
Growing crops and livestock to meet immediate needs for families.
Inhospitable land to people & unarable
1/8 Apple (2)
Where people live
1/32 Apple (peel)
The funk family farm raises grain, alfalfa, and corn on land that was once;
A short grass prairie
Moving water for farming
Underground water supply full of gravel, rocks, sand
Name several states in which the "Ogalalla Aquifer" can be found
The Ogalalla aquifer is currently being used up __ times faster than it is being replenished.
What will this mean for the future of this environment?
Lack of successful crops
A dryly do farmer needs _______ the amount of land as an irrigating farmer to earn the same income.
What was the effect of having central pivot sprinklers?
Watering more land evenly, hilly land
Name other types of irrigation
Pros of GMOs
-ex) cow, produce more milk on less feed
-ex) pigs more feed efficient, produce leather meat
-may lead to the creation of "superbugs" resistant to the effects of pesticides
-"superweeds" resistant to herbicides
-royalties and technical fees to farmers who use them
-more hybrid seeds have to be bought
-can disrupt the natural environment of organisms
-safety is questionable
=population / area (km2)
Low density residential land use
Where land value is low
High density residential land use
Where land is more costly
Two factors that affect residential density?
Three different major types of roads
Expressways- largest capacity roads
Arterial roads- carry moderate amounts of traffic quickly over short distances
Travel Paths- smaller and narrower
Low order goods
Convenience store, inventory such as candy bars, newspapers, milk, bread, lottery tickets
Middle order goods
CDs, calculators, clothing
High order goods
Items purchased infrequently, such as a car/ something expensive
Local service centre
Corner stores providing low order goods ie) redi mart
Neighbourhood plazas and ribbons
Businesses located in long strips, local people and drive by customers. Comparison shop.
Community shopping centres (mall)
Major street intersections, large cities. Shopping needs usually always satisfied. Department stores located on either sides as anchors for the mall.
Regional shopping centre (mall)
Have stores that can be found in smaller shopping centres as well as special stores that require high threshold population.
Central business district
Downtown, greatest concentration of tallest buildings. Office space. Financial, retail, entertainment, hotel use.
Four types of industrial land uses
Suburban industrial parks
Suburban industry parks
How do land values affect land use?
Land values are highest in areas in the city that are most accessible. CBD- highest land values. Also high along major transportation routes. Lots for new houses values increasing.
The healthiest cities are....
In a constant state of flux, more constant change
Digging in London, to build underground train systems, workers came across
Fragment of roman roof tile from 50 A.D.
Hoards of people moved to cities in the 18th century as a result of the
London's initial construction of underground mass transit began in this year. Which other 2 large cities followed suit, according to the film?
Cities: New York and Paris
Who is generally credited with the invention of the light bulb? What does Canadian history have to say about this ?
Evans and Woodward
How does the advent of electricity change life and the character of cities ?
Can't see stars
Who were the first people to move water in a systematic way? What did they use to move it? How much water did they move? When did this begin?
Used gravity, pushed water along aqueducts
85,000,000 gallons per day
What year were the two main aqueducts in New York made?
What significant sewage technology develops in the mid 19th century? What is significant about the year 1858 in London's House of Commons?
Terrible stench, workers had to leave
In digesting nutrients out of sewage, our alley is
______? What is given off in this process?
How many flushes per second are there in London from 2.5 million people?
Cities are often developed in one of two ways. Name and describe these two.
Natural organic- medieval city
What 3 facts can you recall about the city Teotihuacan ?
First huge urban development
Centre of universe where time began
What must a city do to avoid flaring up and dying according to the film?
Respond to its populations needs, adaptation
Some future concerns cities of the future will need to address in order to remain healthy
In the 14th century, play killed off approx ____% of the population.
2 technological developments that allowed skyscrapers to be built?
Stronger lighter steel beams
Size and age of Woolworth Building NY
58 stories high
Two post skyscraper events which slow and stop large urban building projects in the 1930s and 1940s?
World War 2
WW2 trend in city development? How are residential areas designed differently? Which president had a say in this?
In moving traffic around a city, what means of transportation is oftentimes largely not considered?
Pedestrians, bikers, trains
How are industry, economy, and health related in this part of the film?
Industry-->fail--> no tax
How have computers changed the way traffic flows?
Traffic light control monitors
Re route around accidents
Tore up a freeway that ran through the city
Controversy in legislature
Creation of Portland development system
Public parks out of garages
Affordable riverfront property
Success known around world
Reinvest money in rapid transit
Noteworthy things about Brasilia
Capital of country
Lead country into techno future
Modern new era
Built in 5 years
100s of roads built 40,000 ppl labour
Shape of jet plane
No neighbourhoods or street names only sectors
What does a city need to be sustainable, viable, and thrive?
Accessible, mass transit, meet everyone's needs
The only significant water in the west comes from the
The Colorado river was unusable by human beings until the building of the ________.
Seven states that share the water of the Colorado river?
_______ per capita water use is among the highest in the country.
Some ways we can conserve water?
Don't pour anything in water
Use dishwater once a day
Non drinkable water for lawns
Don't water the lawn
Different agriculture types
Why are landfills problematic for watersheds?
They're contaminating the water.
Describe Toxic Alley
Toxic dumps litter the landscape
Allow chemicals to leak into underground streams
43 toxic hotspots located here
Why did the families of Love Canal make news?
Health conditions; arthritis, tumours, cancer rates, she can never have children again, 22,000 tones toxic waste, hysterectomy
What is dioxin?health concerns?
A by-product of paper bleaching, insecticide, messes with hormone levels, causes cancer.
How can we conserve or protect our water in our own environment in southern Manitoba ? List at least 5
Don't pour toxic chemicals in water
Promote healthy ecosystems
Use less water
Water lawn/ outdoor plants early or late in the day
Low density development surrounding a city
An urban transportation system capable of moving a large number of people in and around a city.
Outward spread of knowledge and influence from a large centre
Activity that brings money to a community
Non basic industry
Activity that circulates money from within a community
Minimum number of customers required for an urban service to exist.
City that is in a position to be a major transportation centre.
Area around a town that trades with a town
A system of public works such as schools, libraries, bridges, roads, and sewage/ water systems for example.
City that grows around an industry
All functions and activities on which a city depends for the bulk of its financial existence
Resource based city
City that exists because of s useful natural commodity located nearby
Land use zoning
How urban, suburban, or rural land is and can be used over an areas ie) parks, housing, agriculture
Line through a community along which land use or other data are analyzed.
Smallest urban area used for census data collection
Who was Jane Jacobs and what did she write
The death and life of great American cities
Unique about naheed nenshi?
Canada's first Muslim mayor
Deep understanding of urban issues
Public transit his preferred choice
Wants to completely transform Calgary
Sense of Discovery
Emphasis of what goes around a certain area , increase density
What are some of nenshi's ideas that he would like to implement in Calgary?
Develop unused downtown lands
Spot intensification residential neighbourhoods
High rises around transit stops and redevelop low rise strip malls into mud rise retail and residential buildings
Build smarter suburbs
Conventional energy source
Well established source of energy such as oil, natural gas, coal, hydro- and nuclear energy
Alternative energy source
Non conventional energy source such as solar, wind, and biomass energy
1. Plants are cheap to operate since no fuel to buy
2. Does not produce air pollution
3. Renewable resource
4. Reservoir can be used for fishing and boating
1.plants very costly to build
2. Suitable sites often far from areas where electricity is needed
3. Building of dams requires flooding of low lying areas, which destroys everything in those areas and causes the release of dangerous chemicals
4. Significantly affects the lives of people who live in the flooded areas
1. Plants can be built where electricity is needed or where fuel is cheaply available, shorter transmission lines needed
2. Plants less expensive to build.
Thermal electricity- cons
1.fuel costs high
2. Non renewable resources
3.contributes to global warming
4. Acid rain
Nuclear electricity pros
1. Plants can be built where energy is needed, transmission costs are low
2. Operating costs are low
3.canada has an abundant supply of uranium
4. No air pollution
Nuclear electricity cons
1. Construction costs high
2. Radioactive materials very hazardous to human health
3. Waste products from the plants remain dangerous for 100,000 years
4. Plants will have to be rebuilt or replaced at an enormous cost
Industry that deals with the production of primary products such as minerals that are mined or quarried, or agricultural product harvested in its raw state
Industry dealing with manufacturing or construction
Industries that provide service rather than goods
Highly specialized (usually expensive) knowledge based technological and support services
Is the idea that non basic industry will succeed if basic industry is thriving, is also known as the snowball effect
Phrase used in considering the total greenhouse gas emissions generated by an event, organization, or individual.
Top 3 energy uses in Canada?
How does hydroelectricity generate power?
Uses the force of water moving from a higher to a lower elevation to drive the electric generator
How does thermal energy generate power?
Steam, rather than moving water, is used to turn turbines which in turn causes generator to turn