Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (56):
Covers a range of topics of interest to different social scientist in contrast to a survey that is designed to answer only a few specific research questions.
Summary, collection research on experiment or data.
Mass-Aimless searching for associations in data and invoking the research question as an afterthougt.
Two questions disguised as one.
*Are your college courses more demanding and interesting than your high school classes?
Putting two negative words together in a question.
*Do you disagree that there should not be a tuition?
People who will prefer neutral options if one is available.
(Ex: Scale of 1-5, select 3)
-To avoid-use scale 1-4
People who will prefer to say don't know if that's a possible response.
When connotations of words and phrases increase the risk that the answer will be biased.
Social desirability bias
People selecting a desirable answer because it's an option. People selecting that they have an above average marraige quality even though it should be equal or above.
"Agree or Disagree" vs "How many days was it hard to get out of bed because you were depressed?"
Covers all possible options that could be answers; it it's not exhaustive it forces people to either not answer the question or answer in a way that isn't approprate for them.
If you answer one way on a survey question, it's impossible to answer another wayl no catgeories overlap.
Getting a small group and having them test the survey before it is sent out.
Incredibly helpful for picking up on things that don't make sense in the survey.
Wanted: don't want crammed pages, want enough space around each question. Just a few questions per page, put things in boxes when possible.
Smaller page, possibly thicker book, but people turn pages more which indicates progress to people.
To be good it gives people 2 pieces of information: how much there is total, and how much is completed.
When two questions are next to each other a peron's mood will effect how they answer those questions.
If a person is in a good modd and between 2 answers on a scale, they will select higher number.
Randomize order of the questions to reduce this.
How you define what data you are analyzing, involved text or data from theoretical or descriptive ideas.
Help the researcher understand what the respondent meant by his or her responses to particular demographic questions.
Forward and Back Translation
(What and Why)
The gold standard for translation is blind forward-and-back translation using field experts, focus groups, and pilot testing.
Allows researcher to have survey questions including only respondents
Questions in questionaries to ensure respondent meet the require criterias.
Used to display categorical data and show the differences in frequencies of the different categories.
Used to display continuous data
How to calculate mean:
computed by adding up the value of all the cases and dividing by the total number of cases, thereby taking into account the value of each case in the distribution
(sum of numbers/number of cases=mean)
1. put the scores in order from lowest to highest
2. if N is odd, then the median is the middle score of the list
3. if N is even, then the median is the mean of the two middle scores on the list
Most frequent value of data.
-the difference between the highest and lowest value
-range= (True max-True min)+1
Interquartile Range (IQR)
-dividing points between the four quarters in the distribution
-not influenced by extreme observations but it only uses the middle half of data
-ex: [1,2,3,8,10,13,13,14]. IQR=(13-3)+1=11
The average squared deviation of each case from the mean (Takes into account the amount by
-the average distance an observation is from its mean (SD= sqrt(variance))
-The BIGGER SD, the more spread out the variability
How are variance and standard deviation related?
Standard deviation is the square root of variance
Bell curve, symmetric
Right and Left Skewed
-extent to which cases are clustered more at one or the other end of the distribution of a quantitative variable rather than in a symmetric patter around its center
Building inventories, references, organizing particular people time and place, action, materials.
Procedure used to make inferences (statements) about study population based on our sample.
A measure of the statistical accuracy of an estimate, equal to the standard deviation of the theoretical distribution of a large population of such estimates.
A range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it.
The “population” in statistics includes all members of a defined group that we are studying or collecting information on for data driven decisions. A part of the population is called a sample.
The resources, raw materials, clients, and staff that go into a program.
The complete treatment or service delivered by the program.
The services delivered or new products produced by the program process. Shows operation.
The impact of the program process on the cases processed.
Information about service delivery system outputs, outcomes, or operations that is available to any program input.
Individuals and groups who have some basis of concern with the program. Clients, staff, funders, public.
A type of evaluation that attempts to determine the needs of some population that might be met with a social program.
A type of evaluation research conducted to determine whether it is feasible to evaluate a program’s effects within the available time and resources.
Evaluation research that investigates the process of service delivery.
Analysis of the extent to which a treatment or other service has an effect. Also known as a summative evaluation.
A type of evaluation research that compares program costs with program effects.
Differences between cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis
Cost-benefit analysis A type of evaluation research that compares program costs to the economic value of program benefits. Good for comparing having a program versus having no program in terms of dollar amounts.
Cost-effectiveness analysis A type of evaluation research that compares program costs to actual program outcomes. Good for comparing two different programs attempting to address the same outcomes.
Difference between a black box evaluation and one that uses a program theory
Black box evaluation: This type of evaluation occurs when an evaluation of program outcomes ignores, and does not identify, the process by which the program produces the effect.
Program theory: A descriptive or prescriptive model of how a program operates and produces effects. Thus it is a theory-driven evaluation.
To compare large-scale outcomes
To conduct experiments
To evaluate objective costs & benefits
To track change over time