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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (56):
1

Omnibus Survey

Covers a range of topics of interest to different social scientist in contrast to a survey that is designed to answer only a few specific research questions.

2

Secondary Research

Summary, collection research on experiment or data.

3

Data-Mining

Mass-Aimless searching for associations in data and invoking the research question as an afterthougt.

4

Double-Barreled

Two questions disguised as one.
*Are your college courses more demanding and interesting than your high school classes?

5

Double Negative

Putting two negative words together in a question.
*Do you disagree that there should not be a tuition?

6

Fence Sitting

People who will prefer neutral options if one is available.
(Ex: Scale of 1-5, select 3)
-To avoid-use scale 1-4

7

Floating

People who will prefer to say don't know if that's a possible response.

8

Leading Question

When connotations of words and phrases increase the risk that the answer will be biased.

9

Social desirability bias

People selecting a desirable answer because it's an option. People selecting that they have an above average marraige quality even though it should be equal or above.

10

Vaguness

"Agree or Disagree" vs "How many days was it hard to get out of bed because you were depressed?"

11

Exhaustive

Covers all possible options that could be answers; it it's not exhaustive it forces people to either not answer the question or answer in a way that isn't approprate for them.

12

Mutually Exclusive

If you answer one way on a survey question, it's impossible to answer another wayl no catgeories overlap.

13

Pilot Test

Getting a small group and having them test the survey before it is sent out.

14

Focus Group

Incredibly helpful for picking up on things that don't make sense in the survey.

15

White Space

Wanted: don't want crammed pages, want enough space around each question. Just a few questions per page, put things in boxes when possible.

16

Booklet Form

Smaller page, possibly thicker book, but people turn pages more which indicates progress to people.

17

Progress indicators

To be good it gives people 2 pieces of information: how much there is total, and how much is completed.

18

Context Effects

When two questions are next to each other a peron's mood will effect how they answer those questions.
If a person is in a good modd and between 2 answers on a scale, they will select higher number.
Randomize order of the questions to reduce this.

19

Thematic Categorization

How you define what data you are analyzing, involved text or data from theoretical or descriptive ideas.

20

Interpretive Questions

Help the researcher understand what the respondent meant by his or her responses to particular demographic questions.

21

Forward and Back Translation
(What and Why)

The gold standard for translation is blind forward-and-back translation using field experts, focus groups, and pilot testing.

22

Screening Questions

Allows researcher to have survey questions including only respondents

23

Filter Questions

Questions in questionaries to ensure respondent meet the require criterias.

24

Bar charts

Used to display categorical data and show the differences in frequencies of the different categories.

25

Histograms

Used to display continuous data

26

How to calculate mean:

computed by adding up the value of all the cases and dividing by the total number of cases, thereby taking into account the value of each case in the distribution
(sum of numbers/number of cases=mean)

27

Median:

1. put the scores in order from lowest to highest
2. if N is odd, then the median is the middle score of the list
3. if N is even, then the median is the mean of the two middle scores on the list

28

Mode:

Most frequent value of data.

29

Range:

-the difference between the highest and lowest value
-range= (True max-True min)+1

30

Interquartile Range (IQR)

-dividing points between the four quarters in the distribution
-not influenced by extreme observations but it only uses the middle half of data
-IQR=(Q3-Q1)+1
-ex: [1,2,3,8,10,13,13,14]. IQR=(13-3)+1=11

31

Variance

The average squared deviation of each case from the mean (Takes into account the amount by

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Standard Deviation

-the average distance an observation is from its mean (SD= sqrt(variance))
-The BIGGER SD, the more spread out the variability

33

How are variance and standard deviation related?

Standard deviation is the square root of variance

34

Normal distribution

Bell curve, symmetric

35

Right and Left Skewed

-Left=negative
-Right=positive
-extent to which cases are clustered more at one or the other end of the distribution of a quantitative variable rather than in a symmetric patter around its center

36

Multimodal

Building inventories, references, organizing particular people time and place, action, materials.

37

P-Value

Inferential Statistic
Cutoff= p

38

Inferential Statistic

Procedure used to make inferences (statements) about study population based on our sample.

39

Standard Error

A measure of the statistical accuracy of an estimate, equal to the standard deviation of the theoretical distribution of a large population of such estimates.

40

Confidence Interval

A range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it.

41

Population/Sample

The “population” in statistics includes all members of a defined group that we are studying or collecting information on for data driven decisions. A part of the population is called a sample.

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Inputs

The resources, raw materials, clients, and staff that go into a program.

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Program Process

The complete treatment or service delivered by the program.

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Outputs

The services delivered or new products produced by the program process. Shows operation.

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Outcomes

The impact of the program process on the cases processed.

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Feedback

Information about service delivery system outputs, outcomes, or operations that is available to any program input.

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Stakeholder

Individuals and groups who have some basis of concern with the program. Clients, staff, funders, public.

48

Needs Assessment

A type of evaluation that attempts to determine the needs of some population that might be met with a social program.

49

Evaluability Assessment

A type of evaluation research conducted to determine whether it is feasible to evaluate a program’s effects within the available time and resources.

50

Process Evaluation

Evaluation research that investigates the process of service delivery.

51

Impact Analysis

Analysis of the extent to which a treatment or other service has an effect. Also known as a summative evaluation.

52

Efficiency Analysis

A type of evaluation research that compares program costs with program effects.

53

Differences between cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis

Cost-benefit analysis A type of evaluation research that compares program costs to the economic value of program benefits. Good for comparing having a program versus having no program in terms of dollar amounts.

Cost-effectiveness analysis A type of evaluation research that compares program costs to actual program outcomes. Good for comparing two different programs attempting to address the same outcomes.

54

Difference between a black box evaluation and one that uses a program theory

Black box evaluation: This type of evaluation occurs when an evaluation of program outcomes ignores, and does not identify, the process by which the program produces the effect.

Program theory: A descriptive or prescriptive model of how a program operates and produces effects. Thus it is a theory-driven evaluation.

55

Quantitative

Use Quantitative:
To compare large-scale outcomes
To conduct experiments
To evaluate objective costs & benefits
To track change over time

56

Qualitative

Use Qualitative:
To get idiographic depth (personal detail, nuance, and setting)
To understand exemplary cases
To find out what is “inside the black box”
To identify new outcomes that should be examined
To document how social programs actually operate