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Flashcards in exam 4 Deck (105):
1

a ______ is result of a successful joining of the nucleus of an egg (i.e., ovum) with that of a sperm cell.

zygote

2

This involves the release of hydrolytic enzymes from a vesicle called the_____
at the tip of the sperm cell.

acrosome

3

These granules in turn initiate the creation of a new layer,_____ , in a matter of seconds.

fertilization membrane

4

a ball of cells (32 cell stage) is called

morula

5

in the center of a blastula is a

blastocoel

6

This process is called_____ , and it resulted in an embryo with comprised to two layers of embryonic cells from the original single layer of the blastula.

gastrulation

7

The pocket now forms the _______ (Translation: primitive stomach), which will in time form the digestive cavity of the animal.

archenteron

8

The _____ is the opening on the surface of the gastrula that leads into the archenteron.

blastopore

9

the germ layer covering surface of embryo and that gives rise to the nervous system and skin

ectoderm

10

the germ layer that gives rise to the digestive tract and lining of organs (innermost germ layer)

endoderm

11

germ layer that forms muscles, heart and circulatory system

mesoderm

12

the head is the ____ region

anterior

13

animals with three germ layers are

triploblastic

14

animals with two germ layers are

diploblastic

15

notable feature in a 16 hour chick is the

primitive streak

16

what is a segmented muscle block

somite

17

Area of specialized cells that, through chemical signaling, orchestrates gastrulation in birds.

hensens node

18

cnidarians and ctenophora are

diploblastic eumetozoans

19

The sponge body is designed around a central chamber called the

spongocoel

20

Lining this central chamber (of a sponge) are thousands of flagellated cells called _____

choanocytes

21

in sponges, _____ that form the spicules and the spongin.

amoebocyte cells

22

Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora are members of the

Eumetazoa.

23

Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora have ____ symmetry

radial

24

Two general body shapes occur within cnidaria:

polyp and medusa

25

medusa is

free-swimming, bell-shaped

26

polyp is

more sedentary tree- shaped

27

what is the digestive cavity like for cnidaria

The digestive cavity lacks an anus, so food and waste have to enter and exit the same opening

28

what is the morphology for cnidaria

gastrovascular cavity

29

Cnidarians lack a central nervous system, and their nerves are arranged as
a

nerve net.

30

Cnidarias have _____ that are stinging harpoon-like structures

nematocysts

31

what class are true jellies in? are they generally medusa?

Class Scyphozoa

yes they are generally medusa

32

what class are Portuguese Man O’War and hydras in? what stages do they possess?

class hydrozoan
medusa and polyp

33

what class are sea anemones and coral in?

class anthozoa
They are limited to the polyp morphology

34

what class are sea wasps and box jellies in?

class cubozoa

35

what phylum are comb jellies in?

ctenophora

they are not true jellies

36

what is different between ctenophora and cnidaria

presence of an anal pore

37

a ______ is a ring of tentacle-like structures near the mouth that primarily function in feeding.

lophophore

38

whats the developmental stage in lophotrochozoans?

trochophore larva

39

what morphology do lophotrochozoans have?

triploblastic

40

A _____ is a body cavity that separates an animal’s digestive system from its outer body wall.

coelom

41

An _____ animals lack this body cavity, so their bodies are solid tissue without any form of separation between the digestive tube and the outer
body wall.

acoelomate

42

______ animals do possess a body cavity that separates these two elements of the body, but the cavity possess mesoderm that is only associated with the ectodermal body wall and not the digestive cavity.

Pseudocoelomate

43

______ animals possess a coelomic cavity that is completely lined in mesodermal tissue.

Eucoelomate

44

what symmetry do lophotrochozoans have?

bilateral

45

what phylum are flatworms in?

Phylum Platyhelminthes

46

what is the body cavity for Phylum Platyhelminthes

gastrovascular cavity (lack an anus)

47

Platyhelminthes possess specialized cells called _____, the basis of their
excretory system

flame cells

48

four major classes of flatworms:

Class Turbellaria
Class Trematoda
Class Monogenoidea
Class Cestoda

49

what class are flatworms in?

Class Turbellaria

50

what is the morphology of phylum platyhelminthes?

acoelomate

51

what class are flukes in

Class Trematoda

52

what class are parasitic flatworms in

Class Monogenoidea

53

what class are tapeworms in

class cestoda

54

what are three parts to the tapeworm body?

attachment organ, called a
scolex, complete with hooks and suckers

an unsegmented
neck

numerous posterior body segments called proglottids.

Each segment is a self-contained reproductive system,
complete with ovaries and testicular tissue.

55

what phylum are rotifers in

phylum syndermata

56

what morphology are rotifers

pseudocoelomates

57

what phylum are lamp shells in

Phylum Brachiopoda

58

what morphology are mollusca

Eucoelomate

59

mollusca possess a
special mouthpart known as
a

radula.

60

(mollusca) The ____ consists of
a fold on the dorsal side of the animal’s body.

what does it do?

mantle

The mantle acts as a lung or gill supporting gas exchange and is associated with a circulatory system.

61

(mollusca) The organs of the body are contained within a _____ and a muscularized foot is the primary means of locomotion.

visceral mass

62

In the open system, blood leaves blood vessels and bathes organs in a

hemocoel.

63

major classes of mollusca:

a. Class Gastropoda – snails and slugs
b. Class Polyplacophora – chitons
c. Class Bivalvia – bivalves
d. Class Cephalopoda – octopuses, squid

64

The shelled member the taxa demonstrate a developmental process called ____ in which the body twists and folds over so that it can be accommodated in a single opening in the shell.

torsion

65

what class are the chitons

Class Polyplacophora

66

what class are clams in

Class Bivalvia

67

what circulatory system do class cephalopoda have?

closed

68

what phylum are segmented worms in?

Phylum Annelida

69

all annelids have

closed circulatory system, ventral nerve chord, and ring-shaped brain.

70

what are the three classes in annelida?

Class Oligochaeta
Class Polychaeta
Class Hirudinea

71

Earthworms have a special reproductive organ called a ____ that forms a ring around the body.

clitellum

72

Most species in the Ecdysozoans possess a tough exterior keratinized covering called a

cuticle

73

cuticle is shed through a process called

ecdysis

74

what phylum are roundworms in ?

Nematoda

75

what phyla are in Ecdysozoa


 Phylum Nematoda
 Ph Nematomorpha
 Ph Arthopoda
 Ph Tardigrada
 Ph Onychophora

76

what phylum are spiders, crabs, and insects in

Phylum Arthropoda

77

This fusion and specialization of body segments, called ______ , has resulted in only two or three specialized body segments for most arthropods.

tagmatization

78

Phylum Arthropoda has the presence of a somewhat rigid outside skeleton called

exoskeleton

79

The exoskeleton is composed of

chitin

80

what subphylum are spiders in

Chelicerata

81

Arachnids (spiders) breathe with what, in essence, is a terrestrialized gill called a

book lung

82

Crustaceans have a distinctive larval state, the _____

nauplius larva

83

Insects possess an unusual
respiratory apparatus known as the

tracheal system.

84

the tubular network of trachea direct the
flow of air through small openings called

spiracles

85

insects have _____ eyes

compound eyes

86

Insect life history includes many examples of

metamorphosis

87

what phylum and class are centipedes and millipedes in

arthropoda and Myriapods

88

what class are water bears in

Phylum Tardigrada

89

Tardigrades feed by inserting needle-like mouthparts called ____ into the tissue of plants.

stylets

90

what are the features of a protosome development (mollusca and annelida)?

cleavage: spiral and determinate
coelom formation: solid masses of mesoderm split to form coelom
fate of blastopore: mouth develops from blastopore

91

what are the features of deuterstome development?

cleavage: radial and indeterminate
coelom formation: folds of archenteron form coelom
fate of blastopore: anus develops from blastopore

92

two major phyla of deuterostomes:

echinodermata and chordata

93

echinoderms have a ____which helps with waste removal and respiration.

water vascular system

94

what phylum and class are sea urchins and the sand dollars in?

phylum echinodermata and class echinoidea

95

echinoderms have a specialized feeding structure called ____ possesses five calcium teeth that scrape algae off rock surfaces.

Aristotle’s lantern

96

what class are sea stars in

class asteroidea and phylum echinodermata

97

what class are brittle stars in

Class Ophiuroidea

98

what phylum and class are sea cucumbers in?

phylum echinodermata
Class Holothuroidea

99

what phylum and class are sea lillies in?

phylum echinodermata and Class Crinoidea

100

what are the key features of chordata

1. notochord
2. pharyngeal slits
3. dorsal, hollow nerve cord
4. post anal tail

101

what subphylum and phylum are tunicates (sea squirts) in?

phylum chordata and class urochordata

102

what subphylum and phylum are lancelets in?

phylum chordata and subphylum cephalochordata

103

reptiles possess an ____

amniotic egg

104

birds are _____ (warm blooded)

homeothermic

105

what do mammals have? (produce milk)

mammary glands