Flashcards in exam 4 Deck (105):
a ______ is result of a successful joining of the nucleus of an egg (i.e., ovum) with that of a sperm cell.
This involves the release of hydrolytic enzymes from a vesicle called the_____
at the tip of the sperm cell.
These granules in turn initiate the creation of a new layer,_____ , in a matter of seconds.
a ball of cells (32 cell stage) is called
in the center of a blastula is a
This process is called_____ , and it resulted in an embryo with comprised to two layers of embryonic cells from the original single layer of the blastula.
The pocket now forms the _______ (Translation: primitive stomach), which will in time form the digestive cavity of the animal.
The _____ is the opening on the surface of the gastrula that leads into the archenteron.
the germ layer covering surface of embryo and that gives rise to the nervous system and skin
the germ layer that gives rise to the digestive tract and lining of organs (innermost germ layer)
germ layer that forms muscles, heart and circulatory system
the head is the ____ region
animals with three germ layers are
animals with two germ layers are
notable feature in a 16 hour chick is the
what is a segmented muscle block
Area of specialized cells that, through chemical signaling, orchestrates gastrulation in birds.
cnidarians and ctenophora are
The sponge body is designed around a central chamber called the
Lining this central chamber (of a sponge) are thousands of flagellated cells called _____
in sponges, _____ that form the spicules and the spongin.
Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora are members of the
Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora have ____ symmetry
Two general body shapes occur within cnidaria:
polyp and medusa
more sedentary tree- shaped
what is the digestive cavity like for cnidaria
The digestive cavity lacks an anus, so food and waste have to enter and exit the same opening
what is the morphology for cnidaria
Cnidarians lack a central nervous system, and their nerves are arranged as
Cnidarias have _____ that are stinging harpoon-like structures
what class are true jellies in? are they generally medusa?
yes they are generally medusa
what class are Portuguese Man O’War and hydras in? what stages do they possess?
medusa and polyp
what class are sea anemones and coral in?
They are limited to the polyp morphology
what class are sea wasps and box jellies in?
what phylum are comb jellies in?
they are not true jellies
what is different between ctenophora and cnidaria
presence of an anal pore
a ______ is a ring of tentacle-like structures near the mouth that primarily function in feeding.
whats the developmental stage in lophotrochozoans?
what morphology do lophotrochozoans have?
A _____ is a body cavity that separates an animal’s digestive system from its outer body wall.
An _____ animals lack this body cavity, so their bodies are solid tissue without any form of separation between the digestive tube and the outer
______ animals do possess a body cavity that separates these two elements of the body, but the cavity possess mesoderm that is only associated with the ectodermal body wall and not the digestive cavity.
______ animals possess a coelomic cavity that is completely lined in mesodermal tissue.
what symmetry do lophotrochozoans have?
what phylum are flatworms in?
what is the body cavity for Phylum Platyhelminthes
gastrovascular cavity (lack an anus)
Platyhelminthes possess specialized cells called _____, the basis of their
four major classes of flatworms:
what class are flatworms in?
what is the morphology of phylum platyhelminthes?
what class are flukes in
what class are parasitic flatworms in
what class are tapeworms in
what are three parts to the tapeworm body?
attachment organ, called a
scolex, complete with hooks and suckers
numerous posterior body segments called proglottids.
Each segment is a self-contained reproductive system,
complete with ovaries and testicular tissue.
what phylum are rotifers in
what morphology are rotifers
what phylum are lamp shells in
what morphology are mollusca
mollusca possess a
special mouthpart known as
(mollusca) The ____ consists of
a fold on the dorsal side of the animal’s body.
what does it do?
The mantle acts as a lung or gill supporting gas exchange and is associated with a circulatory system.
(mollusca) The organs of the body are contained within a _____ and a muscularized foot is the primary means of locomotion.
In the open system, blood leaves blood vessels and bathes organs in a
major classes of mollusca:
a. Class Gastropoda – snails and slugs
b. Class Polyplacophora – chitons
c. Class Bivalvia – bivalves
d. Class Cephalopoda – octopuses, squid
The shelled member the taxa demonstrate a developmental process called ____ in which the body twists and folds over so that it can be accommodated in a single opening in the shell.
what class are the chitons
what class are clams in
what circulatory system do class cephalopoda have?
what phylum are segmented worms in?
all annelids have
closed circulatory system, ventral nerve chord, and ring-shaped brain.
what are the three classes in annelida?
Earthworms have a special reproductive organ called a ____ that forms a ring around the body.
Most species in the Ecdysozoans possess a tough exterior keratinized covering called a
cuticle is shed through a process called
what phylum are roundworms in ?
what phyla are in Ecdysozoa
what phylum are spiders, crabs, and insects in
This fusion and specialization of body segments, called ______ , has resulted in only two or three specialized body segments for most arthropods.
Phylum Arthropoda has the presence of a somewhat rigid outside skeleton called
The exoskeleton is composed of
what subphylum are spiders in
Arachnids (spiders) breathe with what, in essence, is a terrestrialized gill called a
Crustaceans have a distinctive larval state, the _____
Insects possess an unusual
respiratory apparatus known as the
the tubular network of trachea direct the
flow of air through small openings called
insects have _____ eyes
Insect life history includes many examples of
what phylum and class are centipedes and millipedes in
arthropoda and Myriapods
what class are water bears in
Tardigrades feed by inserting needle-like mouthparts called ____ into the tissue of plants.
what are the features of a protosome development (mollusca and annelida)?
cleavage: spiral and determinate
coelom formation: solid masses of mesoderm split to form coelom
fate of blastopore: mouth develops from blastopore
what are the features of deuterstome development?
cleavage: radial and indeterminate
coelom formation: folds of archenteron form coelom
fate of blastopore: anus develops from blastopore
two major phyla of deuterostomes:
echinodermata and chordata
echinoderms have a ____which helps with waste removal and respiration.
water vascular system
what phylum and class are sea urchins and the sand dollars in?
phylum echinodermata and class echinoidea
echinoderms have a specialized feeding structure called ____ possesses five calcium teeth that scrape algae off rock surfaces.
what class are sea stars in
class asteroidea and phylum echinodermata
what class are brittle stars in
what phylum and class are sea cucumbers in?
what phylum and class are sea lillies in?
phylum echinodermata and Class Crinoidea
what are the key features of chordata
2. pharyngeal slits
3. dorsal, hollow nerve cord
4. post anal tail
what subphylum and phylum are tunicates (sea squirts) in?
phylum chordata and class urochordata
what subphylum and phylum are lancelets in?
phylum chordata and subphylum cephalochordata
reptiles possess an ____
birds are _____ (warm blooded)