Exam 4; Cancer Chemotherapy Flashcards Preview

AU14 Pharmacology > Exam 4; Cancer Chemotherapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4; Cancer Chemotherapy Deck (58):
1

What is the definition of neoplasia

uncontrolled growth of cells

2

What are three treatments of neoplasias

surgery
radiation
pharmacologic agents

3

Non-specific cancer agents act on what

all cell phases of replication and resting

4

Cell specific cancer agents act on what

all cell that are replicating rapidly

5

Cell specific cancer agents act on more defined sites like what

antimetabolites
mitotic spindle inhibitors
enzyme inhibitors

6

What is the broad scope of cell cycle non-specific agents

alkylating agents

7

What is the mechanism behind the alkylating non-specific agents

adding an alkyl group to DNA, causing DNA cross linking and inhibits cell replication and RNA synthesis

8

What is the mechanism behind cyclophosphamide

pro-drug given orally or IV
when it kits the cell/DNA it stops the cell from working

9

What type of drug is lomustine

pro-drug given IV; alkylating agent

10

What are some side effects of cisplatin

renal damage and ototoxicity

11

What type of drug is cisplatin

alkylating agent

12

What is the mechanism behind doxorubicin

inserts itself into DNA and blocks DNA and RNA synthesis

13

Doxorubicin and other rubicin's produce these

free radicals; can break DNA strands

14

Doxorubicin can cause this to occur

heart muscle degeneration (due to the free radicals)

15

How is doxorubicin given

IV

16

What is the mechanism behind dactinomycin

intercalates with DNA and interferes with mRNA synthesis

17

What is the mechanism behind bleomycin

intercalates with DNA and causes DNA strand breakage

18

What can result from bleomycin

pulmonary fibrosis

19

What is the mechanism behind cell cycle specific agents

block the specific enzymatic pathways in DNA synthesis; inhibit cell synthesis; ENZYME INHIBITORS

20

What is the mechanism behind methotrexate

inhibits dihydrofolate reductase

21

Methotrexate can cause this to happen

myelosuppression (bone marrow)

22

What can be used to treat the side effect caused by methotrexate

giving leucovorin, which is a THFA analog; which can resume normal cells but not malignant

23

What is the mechanism behind 5-flurouracil

it inhibits thymidylate synthase; inhibit thymidine synthesis

24

What is the mechanism behind cytarabine

inhibits DNA polymerase

25

What type of drugs are 5-flurouracil and cytarabine

pyrimidine analogs

26

What is the mechanism behind 6-mercaptopurine

its converted to an analog that inhibits several enzymes needed for purine synthesis

27

What type of drugs are the pyrimidine and purine analogs

pro-drugs

28

What is the mechanism behind vincristine and vinblastine

binds to microtubules and blocks cell mitosis; given IV

29

What is the mechanism behind paclitaxel and the other "taxel's"

forms abnormal microtubules

30

What is the mechanism behind Eribulin

inhibits microtubule and prevents mitosis; causing apoptosis

31

What is the mechanism behind ixabepilone

binds microtubules

32

What is the mechanism behind etoposide

inhibits topoisomerase II causing un-repairable DNA breaks

33

What is the mechanism behind topotecan (and irinotecan)

topoisomerase I inhibitor

34

What is the mechanism behind flutamide and the other "lutamides"

blocks the androgen receptor

35

What is the mechanism behind abiraterone

it inhibits the enzyme 17-hydroxylase lyase (CYP17)
inhibit androgen synthesis

36

What is the mechanism behind leuprolide

receptor activator; stimulates the GnRH receptor

37

What is the mechanism behind tamoxifen (and fluvestrant)

blocks the estrogen receptor

38

What are two side effects of tamoxifen

retinal changes
increased cataract formation

39

What is the mechanism behind anastrozole

inhibits the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting testosterone to estrogen

40

What is the mechanism behind prednisone

inhibits the immune system functions, therefore used to treat neoplasia of the immune system such as leukemias and lymphocytes

41

Most of the new cancer drugs target this

kinase; they are KINASE INHIBITORS

42

How can you distinguish the kinase inhibitors from the other drugs

they end in "-nib"

43

What is the mechanism behind imitinib

protein kinase inhibitor, it inhibits the kinase responsible for inhibiting apoptosis (therefore letting apoptosis happen)

44

What is imitinib used to treat

chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

45

What is the route of imitinib administration

orally, and has relatively few side effects (edema is possible)

46

What kind of side effects to the -nib drugs have

relatively few, since they are so specific

47

What is the mechanism behind bortezomib and carfilzomib

they inhibit proteasome which allow the buildup of proteins, killing the cell

48

What condition is treated with bortezomib and carfilzomib

multiple myeloma; overproduction of bone marrow cells

49

How are monoclonal antibodies more and less specific at the same time

more specific in that they can target any molecule
less specific in that you can't predict the impact

50

What is the mechanism behind trastuzumab

directed against a kinase; VesHER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor)

51

What is the mechanism behind bevacizumab

blocks VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)
preventing the growth factor from binding to its receptor

52

How does bevacizumab destroy the tumor

tumors only grow if there is a blood supply, VEGF (of which is blocked by bevacizumab) allows the growth of blood vessels in tumors

53

What is the mechanism behind rituximab

MAB vs CD20, a receptor that allows the binding and control of immune cells

54

What conditions does rituximab treat

chronic lymphocytic leukemia
RA

55

What are six problems with the use of traditional DNA binding agents to treat neoplasia

not all cancer cells divide rapidly
normal cells are affected by neoplastic agents
not all cancer cells will be killed by the drug
cancer cells can become resistant to the drug
drugs may not enter the CNS
the alkylating agent themselves may cause neoplasia

56

True or False
a combination of cancer drugs is less effective than one targeted drug

False, the combo may be more effecting

57

What are five successes of disease with cancer therapy

chroiocarcinoma
ALL
Hodgkin's
testicular
osteosarcoma

58

What are four cancers that have improved survival rates due to new drugs

breast
ovarian
colon
multiple myeloma