Exam 4 (Ch 20- Promoting Asepsis & Preventing Infection) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 (Ch 20- Promoting Asepsis & Preventing Infection) Deck (158):
1

Virally induced cancers

-Hodgkin's Disease
-Kaposi's sacoma
-Cervical cancer

2

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)

Refers to infections associated with healthcare given in any setting (e.g., hospitals, home care, long-term care, and ambulatory settings).

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Nosocomial infections

Refers more specifically to hospital-acquired infections.

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HAIs aggravate:

existing illness and lengthen recovery time. HAIs seriously increase healthcare costs and patient suffering. It is the 10th leading cause of death in the US

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CDC goals for infection control

-Reduce catheter-associated adverse events by 50% in healthcare settigns
-Reduce targeted antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infection by 50%, preventing transmission in health care settings

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AHRQ

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Contains links to information, tools, and resources on HAIs.

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The Joint Commission

Quality oversight agency. Standards of performance include extensive criteria describing what healthcare organization must do to minimize the risks of infection

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QSEN

Quality and Safety Education for Nurses. Group of educators that was formed to address the challenge of preparing nurses with the competencies necessary to improve the quality and safety of their places of work.

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Chain of infection

Process by which infections spreads. Made up of 6 links, all of which must be present for the infection to be transmitted form one individual to another.

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Normal flora

Microorganisms that are beneficial or even essential for human health and well-being.

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Normal flora in the intestine aid in:

Digestion and synthesize vitamin K, and release vitamin b12, thiamine, and riboflavin when they die. They also limit the growth of harmful bacteria by competing with them for available nutrients.

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Two types of normal flora:

Transient and resident

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Transient flora

normal microbes that a person picks up by coming in contact with objects or another person (e.g., when you touch a soiled dressing). You can remove those with handwashing.

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Resident flora

Live deep in skin layers, where they live and multiply harmlessly. They are permanent inhabitants of the skin, and cannot usually be removed with routing hand washing. They are usually not harmful unless they enter the deep tissues or unless the patient is especially vulnerable to disease.

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Pathogens

microorganisms capable of causing disease

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Infection

successful invasion of the body by a pathogen

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Largest groups of pathogenic microorganisms are:

bacteria, viruses, and fungi (which include yeasts and molds)

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Less common pathogens are:

protozoa, helminthes (worms), and prions, which are infectious protein particles that cause certain neurological diseases.

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Normal flora may become pathogenic if:

disease or injury permit them to enter body regions they do not normally inhabit

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Once a pathogen gain entry into a host, 4 factors determine whether the person develops infection:

-Virulence of the organism
-Ability of the organism to survive in the host environment
-Number of organisms (the greater the number, the more likely they are to cause disease)
-Ability of the host's defenses to prevent infection

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Virulence

power to cause disease

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6 links of the chain of infection

-Reservoir
-Portal of exit
-Mode of transmission
-Portal of entry
-Susceptible host
-Infectious agent

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Reservoir

A source of infection: a place where pathogens survive and multiply. The human body is the most common reservoir for pathogens.

e.g. beside tables, chairs, or equipment. Other surfaces, such as sinks, toilets, bed rails, and bed linens

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Carriers

Individuals that have no symptoms of disease, yet they serve as reservoirs and can past he disease to others.

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Most pathogens prefer a

warm, moist, dark environment

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To live and thrive in human, microbes must:

be able to use the body's precise balance of food, moisture, nutrients, electrolytes, pH, temperature, and light. Food, water, and soil that provide these conditions may serve as nonliving reservoirs, as well.

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Bacteria can rapidly multiply in food left at

room temperature

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The bacteria Salmonella enteritis, which causes salmonellosis can multiply in:

raw and undercooked meat and eggs

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To prevent the growth of pathogens, many foods are:

cooked at high temps and stored in a cool environment. Alternatively, many foods are prepared with a concentration of solutes that inhibits the growth of pathogenic microbes i.e salting of meats and the production of fruit jellies, jams, and preserves

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Pathogens require _____ for survival

moisture

e.g. the moist environment of wounds, the genitourinary tract, the throat and airways

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The spore formed by some bacteria allow them to live without ____.

water

e.g. bacillus and clostridium species; both are food-borne diseases

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For most pathogens, the ideal temperature is ___

95 degrees F (35 degrees C)

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Environments that are either too hot or too cold for a particular species will:

slow its growth or even kill the entire population

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The microbes that are pathogenic to humans are so because

they thrive at about the same temperature as the human body; thus, a fever in response to infection can inhibit and even kill invading pathogens

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Many bacteria and most protozoa and fungi are ___.

aerobic. They must have oxygen to live and grow.
e.g. yeast Candida albicans causes infection in the oral mucosa ("thrush") and the vaginal muscosa

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Anaerobic organisms

Do not require oxygen for growth and may even be killed in its presence.
e.g. Clostridium tetani, a spore-forming bacterium, which causes tetanus when a spore enters the body through an open wound

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To live in humans, pathogens need

the body's precise balance of moisture, sugars, pH (acidity), and electrolytes.

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Most pathogens prefer a pH range of ____ to _____.

5 to 8. therefore, they cannot survive in the highly acidic environment of the stomach.
When patients take antacids, stomach pH increases and removes this defense.

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Microbes that have a higher or lower pH and electrolyte concentration than the human body are not

pathogenic to human beings

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Microbes grow best in

dark environments (e.g., inside the body, deep in wounds, and under dressings)

41

Ultraviolet light is sometimes used to

remove pathogens such as staphylococcus, salmonella, and viruses from surgical instruments and other objects. It can also be used to disinfect drinking water in developing countries to prevent diseases such as cholera and typhoid fever

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A contained reservoir is only a ___ source of infection.

potential

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For infection to spread, a pathogen must

exit the reservoir

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Portal of exit

In the case of human or animal reservoirs, the most frequent portal of exit is through body fluids, including blood, mucus, saliva, breast milk, urine, feces, vomitus, semen, or other secretions.

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The body's natural response to foreign materials, including pathogens, is to try to ___ them.

expel.

e.g. If you have a pathogen in the respiratory system, you cough or sneeze. If it's in the gastrointestinal system, you vomit or experience intestinal cramping and diarrhea.

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Cuts, bites, and abrasions provide

an exit for body fluid

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Blood and pus seeping from a wound help

transport pathogens away from the broken skin but become a portal by which infection may be transmitted to others.

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In healthcare-related infections, puncture sites, drainage tubes, feeding tubes, and intravenous lines commonly serve as

routes for pathogens to exit the body

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The most frequent mode of transmission of infection is by

contact, either direct or indirect

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Direct contact

involves touching, kissing, or sexual intercourse. Animals commonly transmit infection via scratching and biting as well.

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Indirect contact

Involves contact with a fomite

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Fomite

a contaminated object that transfers a pathogen

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Droplet transmission

Occurs when the pathogen travels in water droplets expelled as an infected person exhales, coughs, sneezes, or talks. It may also occur during suctioning and oral care.

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The usual method of droplet transmission

droplet to be inhaled or enter the eye of a susceptible person.

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Droplets can travel only ___ from the infectious person

a few feet; within that distance they may readily contaminate fomites that then transmit the organism by contact

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Airborne transmission

Occurs with much smaller organisms that can float considerable distances on air currents.

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Airborne pathogens can travel through

heating and air conditioning systems to infect large numbers of people

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Sweeping a floor or shaking out contaminated bed linens can stir up

airborne microorganisms and launch them on air currents. Agents of measles and tuberculosis, as well as many fungal infections, are commonly transmitted in this manner.

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Vector

An organism that carries a pathogen to a susceptible host, typically by biting or stinging, creating another portal of entry into the body.
e.g. mosquitos, ticks, fleas, mites, and other insects

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Portals of entry

normal body openings, such as the conjunctiva of the eye, the nares, mouth, urethra, vagina, and anus

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Potential portals of entry

Abnormal openings, such as cuts, scrapes, and surgical incisions.

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Common portals of entry include:

wounds, surgical sites, and insertion sites for tubes or needles

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Susceptible (or compromised) host

A person who is at risk for infection because of inadequate defenses against the invading pathogen.

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Factors that can increase susceptibility to infection:

Age (very young or very old), compromised immune system(cancer treatment or chronic illness), and immune deficiency condition (e.g., HIV, leukemia).

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Infections are classified according to

their location in the body, whether it is the patient's first infection, where it was acquired, and how long it lasts.

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Local infections

Infections that cause harm in a limited region of the body, such as the upper respiratory tract, the urethra, or a single bone or joint

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Systemic infections

occur when pathogens invade the blood or lymph and spread throughout the body

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Bacteremia

the clinical presence of bacteria in the blood

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Septicemia

is symptomatic systemic infection spread via the blood

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Primary infection

the first infection that occurs in a pation.

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Secondary infection

follow a primary infection, especially in immunocompromised patients

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Exogenous healthcare-related infections

the pathogen is acquired from the healthcare environment

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Endogenous healthcare-related infection

the pathogen arises from the patient's normal flora, when some form of treatment (e.g chemotherapy or antibiotics) cause the normally harmless microbe to multiply and cause infection

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Acute infection

Infections that have a rapid onset but last only a short time, such as the common cold

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Chronic infections

Develop slowly and last for weeks, months, or even years

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Latent infections

Cause no symptoms for long periods of time, even decades. e.g. Tuberculosis and HIV

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Predictable stages of infection:

-Incubation
-Prodromal stage
-Illness
-Decline
-Convalescence

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Incubation

The stage between successful invasion of the pathogen into the body and the first appearance of symptoms. The person does not suspect that he has been infected

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Prodromal stage

Characterized by the first appearance of vague symptoms of infection. A person infected with a cold virus may experience a mild throat irritation. Not all infection have a prodromal stage.

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Illness

The stage marked by the appearance of the signs and symptoms characteristic of the disease. If the patient's treatments (if any) are ineffective, this stage can end in the death of a patient.

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Decline

The stage during which the patient's immune defenses, along with any medical therapies, successfully reduce the number of pathogenic microbes.

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Convalescence

Characterized by tissue repair and a return to health as the remaining number of microorganisms approaches zero. May require only a day or two, for severe infections, as long as a year or more

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Epidemic

An outbreak of a disease that suddenly affects a large group of people in a geographic region (e.g. a city or state) or in a defined population group (e.g. children, healthcare workers)

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Pandemic

An exceptionally widespread epidemic--that is, one that affects a large number of people in an entire country or worldwide
e.g., H1N1 Influenza and malaria

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Emerging infectious diseases

-Newly identified disease caused by an unrecognized microorganism
-Diseases occurring in a new geographic areas
-Microorganisms in animals that extend their host range to begin infecting humans
-Microbes that evolve to become more virulent
-Known diseases that dramatically increase incidence
-Organisms that are deliberately altered for bioterrorism
-Most emerging pathogens are viruses

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Drug-resistant or multidrug-resistant

Microorganisms, mostly bacteria, that have mutated to develop resistance tone or more classes of antimicrobial drugs

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The most significant challenge in treating patients with severe infectious disease is

antibiotic resistance

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MDROs

multidrug-resistant organism

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Risk factors associated with MDRO

-Severe illness
-Previous exposure to antimicrobial agents
-Underlying diseases or condition that make it difficult for the person to fight infection
-Invasive procedures and devices, such as dialysis
-Repeated contact with the healthcare system
-Advanced age

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Examples of MDROs

MRSA, Clostridium difficile, vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE), multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), penicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae

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Staphylococcus aureas

lives on the skin and in the nose, usually without causing problems. If a person does have a "staph" infection it is normally treated with methicillin, but MRSA can't be killed with this drug

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Enterococcus faecium

Normal residents in the intestines and the femail genital tracts, and in the environment.
Strains have developed resistance to the antibiotics vancomycin and ampicillin and have become an important source of HRIs throughout the world

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VRE (Vancomycin-resistant enterococci)

Leading cause of healthcare-acquired bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), surgical wound infection, and UTIs.

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Clostridium difficile

Virulent strain of C. diff., a spore forming organism, has developed. 3% of healthy adults carry a harmless version, however it can become harmful when antibiotics destroy healthy bacteria that normally protect against the disease

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Newer C. diff strain

is resistant to nearly all antibiotics and is virulent enough to cause sepsis, lasting intestinal damage, he need for colon removal, an even death.
It thrives in unsanitary hospital environments

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Prevention of transmission in a healthcare facility (C. diff)

-Application of contact precautions for patients with diarrhea
-Accurate identification of patients
-Rigorous cleaning of patient rooms and equipment
-Consistent hand hygiene, using soap and water rather than alcohol-based handrubs
-Use a bleach-containing disinfectant for environmental disinfection

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The human body has 3 "lines of defense" against infectious disease:

1. Certain anatomical features limit the entry of pathogens
2. Protective biochemical processes fight pathogens that do enter.
3. The presence of pathogens activates immune responses against specific, recognized invaders

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The first 2 lines of defense are

nonspecific; they have no means of adapting their response to each specific invader. They act in precisely the same way against any and all intruders from a simple cold virus to deadly fungal spores.

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Primary defenses

the "soldiers." Prevent organisms from entering the body.
e.g. the skin, respiratory tree, eyes, the mouth, the gastrointestinal tract, and the genitourinary tract

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Superinfection

When broad-spectrum antibiotics used to treat infection eliminate normal flora in addition to those causing the infection. This allows other kinds of pathogens to multiply

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Lysozyme

antimicrobial enzyme found in tears, saliva, and urine

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Secondary Defenses

Pathogens that dodge the primary defenses and gain entry into the body and begin to release wastes and secretions and cause the breakdown of cells and tissues

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Chemical activation of secondary defenses

-Phagocytosis
-The complement cascade
-Inflammation
-Fever

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Phagocytosis

Process by which specialized white blood cells, called phagocytes, engulf and destroy pathogens directly

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Phagocytic WBC include

Neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophiles

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Monocytes

Have the ability to differentiate into macrophages that specialize in cleaning up sites of injury or infection by phagocytizing pathogens, used WBCs, and cellular debris

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Macrophages

specialize in cleaning up sites of injury or infection by phagocytizing pathogens, used WBCs, and cellular debris

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Eosinophils

Occasionally phagocytic; are responsible mainly for binding to helminthes and releasing harmful toxins onto their surface

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Basophils

Release histamine and heparin granules as part of the inflammatory response

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Neutrophils

phagocytize pathogens

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Lymphocytes

WBCs involved in specific immunity, produced from stem cells in the red bone marrow
- T cells: responsible for cell-mediated immunity; recognize, attack, and destroy antigens
-B cells: responsible for humoral immunity; produce immunoglobulin to attack and destroy antigens

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The complement cascade

Process by which a set of blood proteins, called complement, trigger the release of chemicals that attack the cell membranes of pathogens, causing them to rupture. Complement also signals WBC called basophils, to release histamine which prompts inflammation

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Inflammation

Process that begins when histamine and other chemicals are released either directly from damaged cells, or from basophils in response to activation of compliment

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Monocytes

Able to phagocytize directly as well as to differentiate into macrophages, which help clean up damaged or inured tissue

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Fever

Rise in core body temperature that increases metabolism, inhibits multiplication of pathogens, and triggers specific immune responses

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Tertiary Defenses

People who recover from an infectious disease like measles and never get the disease again.
-Humoral immunity
-Cell-mediated immunity

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Specific immunity

the process by which the body's immune cells "learn" to recognize and destroy pathogens they have encountered before

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Antigens

Molecules that trigger a specific immunity response

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Humoral immunity

Response acts directly against antigens. In response to the presence of antigens, macrophages and a class of T cells stimulate B cells to produce antibodies

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Antibodies

Also called immunoglobulin (Ig). Proteins with a base region and two arms that bind to target antigens and destroy them

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Methods by which antibodies target and destroy antigens

-Phagocytosis
-Neutralization
-Agglutination
-Activation of complement and inflammation

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Phagocytosis

Signal leukocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) to phagocytize the pathogens to which the antibodies are bound

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Neutralization

Binding a pathogen's attachment sites, antibodies disable the pathogens' machinery for adhering to and invading body cells

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Agglutination

Attaches two pathogenic cells so that by clumping them together, it reduced the cells' activity and increasing the likelihood that the group will be detected

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Activation of complement and inflammation

antibodies trigger the complement cascade and stimulate the release of inflammatory chemicals to destroy the antigen.

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5 classes of immunoglobulins secreted by B lymphocytes

-IgM
-IgG
-IgE
-IgE
-IgA
-IgD

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IgM

produced when an antigen is encountered for the first time

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IgG

the most common immunoglobulin in the body

129

IgE

primarily responsible for the allergic response

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IgA

Mucous membranes secrete IgA around body opening. Provide additional protection for vulnerable portals of entry

131

IgD

Antibodies form on the surface of B cells and trap potential pathogen to prevent it from replicating and causing disease

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Cell-Mediated immunity

response acts directly against antigenic cells, acts to destroy body cells that have become infected

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Cytotoxic (Killer) T cells

directly attack and kill body cells infected with pathogens

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Helper T cells

Regulate the action of B cells in humoral immune response, and of cytotoxic T cells in cell-mediated responses.

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Memory T cells

first time an antigen invades the body, T cells form that respond to that specific antigen

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Suppressor T cells

Stop the immune response when the infection has been contained

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Factors that increase host susceptibility

-Developmental stage
-Breaks in the 1st line of defense
-Illness or injury
-Tobacco Use
-Substance ABUSE
-Mult. Sexual Partners
-Environmental Factors
-Chronic Disease
-Medication
-Nursing and medical procedures

138

Active immunity

Natural process of being exposed to pathogens for the first time so that the body becomes exposed and creates antibodies for them.

139

Superinfections

opportunistic growth of harmful transient pathogens that are normally kept in check

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Asepsis

Term that means absence of contamination by disease-causing microorganisms

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Medical asepsis

Procedures that decrease the potential for the spread of infections

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Contaminated

An object is considered contaminated if it becomes unclean--that is, if you suspect it may contain pathogens

143

Cleaning

the removal of visible soil from objects and surfaces

144

Disinfecting

Removes virtually all pathogens on inanimate objects by physical or chemical means, but it does not guarantee that all pathogens are eliminated.

145

High level disinfection

kills all organisms excepts high levels of bacterial sports

146

intermediate-level disinfection

kills mycobacteria, most viruses, and bacteria

147

low-level disinfection

kills some viruses and bacteria

148

Semicritical items

those that contact mucous membranes or nonintact skin

149

Noncritical items

supplies and equipment that come in contact with the kin but not mucous membranes

150

Sterilization

The elimination of all microorganisms (except prions)

151

Major sterilizing methods

1. autoclaving with moist heat, 2. ethylene oxide gas, and 3. dry head

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Critical items

Ones that pose a high risk for infection if they are contaminated with any microorganism
e.g. needles, urinary catheters, surgical instruments

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Standard precautions

1st tier of protection, applies to all patients

154

Transmission-based precautions

2nd tier of protection

155

Prions

the protein particles that cause severe neurological degeneration in animals and humans such as in bovine spongiform encephalopathy "mad cow disease"

156

Surgical asepsis or sterile technique

requires creation of a sterile environment and use of sterile equipment

157

Surgical scrub

modification of the handwashing procedure. Involves an extended scrub of the hands using a sponge, nail cleaner, and bactericidal scrubbing agent.

158

Bioterrorism

Intentional release, or threatened release of disease-producing organisms or substances for the purpose of causing death, illness, harm, economic damage, or fear