Exam 4 - chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 - chapter 8 Deck (12)
1

Joint aka articulation

site where two or more bones meet

2

Functional classification of joints

synarthroses - immoveable joints
amphiarthroses - slightly moveable joints
diarthroses - freely moveable joints

3

structural classification of joints

fibrous - bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue, no joint cavity - most are immoveable. ex, sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses

cartilaginous joints - bones united by cartilage - no joint cavity, not highly moveable - examples: synchodroses and symphyses

synovial: bones separated by fluid-filled cavity - all are diathrotic (move freely) - include all limb joints, most joints of the body

4

fibrous joints

bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue, no joint cavity - most are immoveable.

ex,
sutures - in skull,

syndesmoses (joint held together by ligament) - between distal ends of fibula/tibia,

gomphoses ("peg in socket" fibrous joint) - periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket.

5

cartilaginous joints

bones united by cartilage - no joint cavity, not highly moveable

examples:
synchodroses (bones united by hyaline cartilage) - sternum and rib joint, epiphyseal plate

symphyses (bones united by fibrocartilage) - pubic symphysis, between vertebraes

6

synovial joints

bones separated by fluid-filled cavity - all are diathrotic (move freely) - include all limb joints, most joints of the body

7

bursae vs tendon sheaths

sacs lined with synovial membrane (contain synovial fluid), reduce friction where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together

elongated bursa wrapped completely around tendon subjected to friction

8

3 stabilizing factors at synovial joints

shapes of articular surface, ligament number and location, ***muscle tendons that cross joint (muscle tone keeps tendons taught)***

9

6 types of synovial joints
PHP CSB

plane - intercarpal, intertarsal, vertebrae

hinge - elbow ( humerus, ulna), interphageal

pivot - proximal radioulnar joints, altantoaxial

condylar - metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joint, wrist joint

saddle - carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs

ball & socket - shoulder, hip

10

knee joint articulating joints, anatomical characteristics, movements allowed, and joint stability

femoropatellar joint - plane joint
-allows gliding motion during knee flexion

lateral & medial tibiofemoral joints - femoral condyles with lateral and medial menisci of tibia,
-allow flexion, extension, and some rotation when knee is partly flexed.

knee stability is provided by fibular/tibial, and popliteal ligaments

11

knee joint problems

vulnerable to horizontal blows, especially lateral blows to the extended knee

12

common joint injuries

cartilage tears - knee menisci, tears, and overuse damage of articular joints - usually just stays torn because cartilage is avascular

sprains - ankle, knee, lumbar region of spine - heal slowly

dislocations - bones are forced out of alightment - jaws, fingers, shoulders, thumbs