Flashcards in Exam 4: Dr. Archer Inherited and Acquired Immune Deficiencies Deck (36):
Look at overview slides on the immune system
Look at overview slides on the immune system
What are primary immunodeficiency diseases?
Inherited defect for components of the immune system
What are the primary immunodeficiency diseases due to?
A defect in a particular protein or glycoprotein
What are features that a primary immunodeficiency might be present?
Affecting a particular breed
Occurring in young littermate animals
Chronic recurrent infections
Infections of multiple body sites
Failure of infections to respond to standard antibiotic therapy
How are primary immunodeficiency disease classified?
What are most inherited immunodeficiency diseases cause by?
Recessive gene defects
Describe X-linked immunodeficiency
Recessive X-linked defect
Describe dominant primary immunodeficiency
Anyone inheriting the abnormal allele is affected
Tend to be less severe and cause a reduction in function rather than a loss of function
Describe canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency
Seen only in Irish Red and White setters
Thought to be autosomal recessive
Neutrophils do not express intern surface molecules and so they cannot stick to endothelial cells
Neutrophils cannot get to areas of inflammation
What is canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency?
Persistent infection with extracellular bacteria
Infection cannot be cleared due to the defective neutrophil function
How do puppies with canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency present?
With recurrent infections
Tend to have a high white cell count
May have a short lived response to antibiotics
Describe SCID in foals
Affected individuals lack functional B and T cells
Incapable of producing an antigen specific immune response
Deletion in the gene encoding of a DNA-dependent protein kinase
What do most SCID infected foals present with?
Describe X-linked SCID
Seen in Bassett Hounds and Corgis
Peripheral T cell lymphopenia
B cells which do not undergo isotype switching to IgG
Reduced production of NK cells
What mutation is there with canine XSCID?
In the gene encoding for IL-2 receptor
What can quickly set in with canine XSCID?
Opportunistic infections such as bacterial pyoderma, otitis, cystitis, diarrhea secondary to infection
What is the most common presenting sign of IgA deficiency in dogs?
Recurrent upper respiratory infections
What is C3?
A component of the complement system and important for opsonization of bacteria
What is the homozygous C3 deficiency like?
No detectable C3
What is the heterozygous C3 deficiency like?
C3 is 50% of normal and animals are clinically normal
What is a clinical sign of C3 deficiency?
Increased susceptibility to bacterial infections
What is cyclic hematopoiesis in gray collies?
Autosomal recessive disorder
What happens with cyclic hematopoiesis?
Sever cyclic neutropenia
Platelet related bleeding
Recurrent bacterial infections
Coat dilutional color
What is there a mutation of in cyclic hematopoiesis?
The beta subunit of AP3`
What do secondary immunodeficiency diseases develop due to?
A secondary problem and not from an immune system defect present at birth
What are big causes of secondary immunodeficiency diseases in small animals?
What is a big cause of secondary immunodeficiency diseases in horses?
Failure of passive transfer
Transferred via bodily fluids from infected individuals
Causes slow progressing diseases
How does HIV cause slow progressing diseases?
The virus recognizes and binds tightly to CD4, allowing entrance into the cell
Cells which express CD4 include macrophages, DCs, and CD4 T cells
How does the virus binding to CD4 alter the immune system?
At the site of virus entry, macrophages and DCs are the first cells to become infected
The virus replicates these initial cells
The virus subsequently infects CD4 T cells
T cell activation causes production of infectious burins, which bud from the cell
What happens overtime wth HIV?
Decline in CD4 T cells and progression to AIDS
What happens once CD4 T cell numbers in the body drop too low?
An effective immune response to other infectious agents cannot be mounted
Initial viral replication and decline in CD4 T cells–acute phase of infection
Progress to a latent asymptomatic period followed by decline in CD4 T cell numbers
With decreased CD4 cells cytokine alterations and progressive immune dysfunction develop
Failing immune system allows for opportunistic infections, neoplasia, and wasting to occur
What is the management for FIV?
Keep indoors and separated from other cats
Regular examinations with blood work
If sick, prompt identification of the secondary illness with treatment
Describe canine parvovirus
Trophism for rapidly dividing cells in the GI tract, bone marrow, and lymphoid tissue