Flashcards in Exam 4: Dr. Mackin Fever Deck (39):
At what temperature is an animal considered to have a fever?
Greater than 103 degrees
What is fever also known as?
What are the 2 reasons to have high body temperature?
Hyperthermia and fever
What is hyperthermia?
When a hot animal wants to be cooler
What is fever?
When a hot animal wants to be warmer
What is the difference between fever and hyperthermia?
Thermoregulatory set point
What happens to the thermoregulatory set point with true fever?
It is reset to higher level in animals
What do pyrogens do?
Give you pyrexia
What are the endogenous pyrogens?
What are the exogenous pyrogens?
Cytokines IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α
What are endogenous pyrogens?
The universal endpoint to cause a fever
What do the cytokines that are released during a fever do?
Reset thermoregulatory set point via local prostaglandins
What are the steps to a fever?
IL-1 secreted by phagocytes travels in blood to hypothalamus
Hypothalamus secreted prostaglandin, which resets hypothalamic thermostat
Nerve impulses cause shivering, higher metabolic rate, inhibition of sweating, and vasoconstriction
These increases body temperature to the point set by the hypothalamic thermostat
What do the endogenous pyrogens do?
Non-specific response to many infections, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases
Mediators of systemic inflammatory response
What is the demeanor of an animal with hyperthermia?
What is the behavior of an animal with hyperthermia?
What is the body temperature of an animal with hyperthermia?
Up to 110 degrees F or greater
What is the demeanor of an animal with fever?
What is the behavior of an animal with fever?
What is the body temperature of an animal with fever?
Rarely more than 106 to 107 degrees F
What are the causes of fever?
What is the most common cause of fever?
Why do we have fever?
May be a protective mechanism
What does having a fever do?
Enhances host immunity
Inhibits bacterial growth by reducing serum iron concentration
Contributes to neoplastic cell death
Encourages rest in affected animal
What happens with enhanced host immunity?
Increased leukocyte mobility
Increased proliferation of T cells
What is inflammation?
Complex reaction in vascularized connective tisse
What does inflammation lead to?
Accumulation of fluid and white blood cells in extravascular tissues
How is inflammation a protective mechanism?
It removes the cause of cell injury (organism/toxin)
Consequences of cell injury (dead cells/debris)
What are the potentially harmful consequences of inflammation?
Chronic inflammatory disease
Systemic inflammatory response
What is the entire inflammatory process mediated by?
Chemicals derived from plasma and cells (inflammatory mediators)
What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?
Loss of function (functio laesa)
What are inflammatory mediators?
Vasoactive amines (histamine and serotonin)
Plasma proteases Arachidonic acid metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes)
Platelet activation factor
Oxygen-derived free radicals
Cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α)
What is the source of cytokines as a mediator?
Lymphocytes, macrophages, and EC
What is the systemic inflammatory response mediated by?
Cytokines IL-1, IL-6 TNF-α
What makes up systemic inflammatory response?
Acute phase proteins
Anemia of chronic disease
What are the predictable lab results in a patient with fever?
Inflammatory or stress leukogram
Anemia or chronic disease
Mild to marked hyperglobulinemia
Why is physical cooling bad?
Stressed and distresses patient
What should be used instead of physical cooling?