Exam 4: Dr. Mackin Fever Flashcards Preview

Immunology - DVM year 1 > Exam 4: Dr. Mackin Fever > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4: Dr. Mackin Fever Deck (39):
1

At what temperature is an animal considered to have a fever?

Greater than 103 degrees

2

What is fever also known as?

Pyrexia

3

What are the 2 reasons to have high body temperature?

Hyperthermia and fever

4

What is hyperthermia?

When a hot animal wants to be cooler

5

What is fever?

When a hot animal wants to be warmer

6

What is the difference between fever and hyperthermia?

Thermoregulatory set point

7

What happens to the thermoregulatory set point with true fever?

It is reset to higher level in animals

8

What do pyrogens do?

Give you pyrexia

9

What are the endogenous pyrogens?

Organisms
Antigens
Foreign substances
Drugs

10

What are the exogenous pyrogens?

Cytokines IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α

11

What are endogenous pyrogens?

The universal endpoint to cause a fever

12

What do the cytokines that are released during a fever do?

Reset thermoregulatory set point via local prostaglandins

13

What are the steps to a fever?

IL-1 secreted by phagocytes travels in blood to hypothalamus
Hypothalamus secreted prostaglandin, which resets hypothalamic thermostat
Nerve impulses cause shivering, higher metabolic rate, inhibition of sweating, and vasoconstriction
These increases body temperature to the point set by the hypothalamic thermostat

14

What do the endogenous pyrogens do?

Non-specific response to many infections, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases
Mediators of systemic inflammatory response

15

What is the demeanor of an animal with hyperthermia?

Excited
Agitated
Distressed

16

What is the behavior of an animal with hyperthermia?

Panting
Vasodilation
Sweating
Cold-seeking

17

What is the body temperature of an animal with hyperthermia?

Up to 110 degrees F or greater

18

What is the demeanor of an animal with fever?

Lethargic
Depressed
Anorectic

19

What is the behavior of an animal with fever?

Shivering/huddling
Vasoconstriction
Piloerection
Heat-seeking

20

What is the body temperature of an animal with fever?

Rarely more than 106 to 107 degrees F

21

What are the causes of fever?

Infectious
Inflammatory
Immunologic
Neoplastic
Drug-associated

22

What is the most common cause of fever?

Bacterial infection

23

Why do we have fever?

May be a protective mechanism

24

What does having a fever do?

Enhances host immunity
Inhibits bacterial growth by reducing serum iron concentration
Contributes to neoplastic cell death
Encourages rest in affected animal

25

What happens with enhanced host immunity?

Increased leukocyte mobility
Enhanced phagocytosis
Increased proliferation of T cells

26

What is inflammation?

Complex reaction in vascularized connective tisse

27

What does inflammation lead to?

Accumulation of fluid and white blood cells in extravascular tissues

28

How is inflammation a protective mechanism?

It removes the cause of cell injury (organism/toxin)
Consequences of cell injury (dead cells/debris)

29

What are the potentially harmful consequences of inflammation?

Hypersensitivity
Chronic inflammatory disease
Immune-mediated disease
Scar tissue/fibrosis
Systemic inflammatory response

30

What is the entire inflammatory process mediated by?

Chemicals derived from plasma and cells (inflammatory mediators)

31

What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?

Redness (rubor)
Swelling (tumor)
Heat (calor)
Pain (dolor)
Loss of function (functio laesa)

32

What are inflammatory mediators?

Vasoactive amines (histamine and serotonin)
Plasma proteases Arachidonic acid metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes)
Platelet activation factor
Nitric oxide
Oxygen-derived free radicals
Cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α)

33

What is the source of cytokines as a mediator?

Lymphocytes, macrophages, and EC

34

What is the systemic inflammatory response mediated by?

Cytokines IL-1, IL-6 TNF-α

35

What makes up systemic inflammatory response?

Fever
Anorexia/cachexia
Lethargy/malaise
Acute phase proteins
Neutrophilia
Anemia of chronic disease
Glucocorticoid release

36

What are the predictable lab results in a patient with fever?

Inflammatory or stress leukogram
Anemia or chronic disease
Mild hypoalbuminemia
Mild to marked hyperglobulinemia

37

Why is physical cooling bad?

Contraindicated
Stressed and distresses patient

38

What should be used instead of physical cooling?

NSAIDs

39

How do NSAIDs work?

Turn off the prostaglandins in the hypothamus which helps reset the thermoregulatory set point